Neeraj Chopra makes India proud again!! We congratulates Neeraj Chopra on bagging Gold Medal🥇 in Men's Javelin at the Wo...

Neeraj Chopra makes India proud again!! We congratulates Neeraj Chopra on bagging Gold Medal🥇 in Men's Javelin at the World Athletics Championship 2023 in Budapest with a throw of 88.17 meters.

https://t.me/gsDIASAditya L1 shall be the first space-based Indian mission to study the Sun. The spacecraft shall be pla...

Aditya L1 shall be the first space-based Indian mission to study the Sun. The spacecraft shall be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, which is about 1.5 million km from the Earth.


: 28/8/2023
1) Talking about Talking: page 6
2) Himalayan blunders that are ravaging the Himalayas: page 6
3) The importance of states in space missions : page 7
4) The state of scholarships for minorities : page 8
5) IAF holds study to identify transport fleet requirement : page 10
6) Don't treat countries merely as a market : page 11
7) ISRO releases graph of temperature variation of topsoil in lunar South Pole : page 12
8) As Pragyan digs deep into moon : page 12

: 28/8/23
1) Create global framework for ethical use of AI : page 3
2) Ukraine conflict ,India's UNSC aspirations in BRICS declaration: page 9
3) Jaishankar warns : page 9
4) state of play : page 10
5) US commerce secy arrives in China for talks on trade boost : page 12
6) How indigenous techniques saved a community from wildfires : page 12
7) Dengue vaccines under development in India: page 14
8) 4 Astranauts from 4 nations reach ISS : page 14
9) India UK bilateral investment treaty to differ from 2016 model : page 15

PM   announced Aug 23 — the day on which   made a soft landing on moon — as the ‘ ’ while Vikram lander’s touchdown spot...

PM announced Aug 23 — the day on which made a soft landing on moon — as the ‘ ’ while Vikram lander’s touchdown spot on the surface as the ‘Shiv Shakti’ point.


: 27/8/23
1) Moon - landing spot is now Shiv Shakti: page 1
2) Catering to diet of elephants to prevent conflicts with human in Assam: page 6
3) Asian Development Bank : page 7
4) What Terai tigers eat : page 9
5) NASA and SpaceX crew of four blast off to ISS : page 10
6) Tropical forests may be getting too hot : page 11
7) Why was a 40% duty imposed : page 12
8) What is the care protocol for babies in India? : page 12
9) Mission possible: page 13
10) PMJDY accounts surpass 50 crore : page 14

: 27/8/23
1) Moon landing point Shiv Shakti : page 3
2) To assuage kukis , Manipur govt plans greater autonomy for hill area : page 3
3) Bhutan looking at a slice of India's growth: page 10
4) Govt considering inclusion of EVs in priority sector : page 15
5) India, US discuss way to promote trade investments:page 15


: 26/8/23
1) Pragyan traverses 8 metres on moon : page 1
2) 28 - ft Nataraja sculpture from Tamil Nadu to grace G-20 venue in Delhi: page 3
3) Concrete alliance: page 6
4) Cleantech : page 6
5) Why did Chandrayaan-3 land on the near side of moon: page 9
6) India and Greece pledge to upgrade ties : page 9
7) Indore best city : page 10
8) G20 ministers agree to map global value chains : page 11
9) China, Bhutan hold first meeting on delimitation of disputed boundary : page 12

: 26/8/23
1) Gap between Delhi, Beijing: page 3
2) Rover moving on moon ,has already covered 8 metres : page 3
3) Modi , Greece PM agree on strategic partnership: page 9
4) Smart cities awards : page 10
5) state of birds : page 11
6) Revised NCF: how school education could change: page 14
7) Why is Japan releasing Fukushima water : page 14
8) Monsoon worries : page 16

Hon'ble PM Shri Narendra Modi Ji was conferred upon Greece's top civilian accolade, The Grand Cross of the Order of Hono...

Hon'ble PM Shri Narendra Modi Ji was conferred upon Greece's top civilian accolade, The Grand Cross of the Order of Honour. A testament to the deep bond between our nations and the immense respect Greece has for India.
With his 15th prestigious award, PM Modi continues to make every Indian heart swell with pride.
Narendra Modi

https://t.me/gsDIASRameshbabu Praggnanandhaa 🇮🇳, an Indian chess prodigy, secured the runner-up position at the FIDE Che...

Rameshbabu Praggnanandhaa 🇮🇳, an Indian chess prodigy, secured the runner-up position at the FIDE Chess World Cup. In a thrilling tie-breaker, he faced off against the reigning World No.1, Magnus Carlsen. Despite the loss, Prag's impressive performance has made India proud. We are proud of you, Prag! 🏆

https://t.me/gsDIAS  is a region of land or water that has been identified by UNESCO as having exceptional universal val...

is a region of land or water that has been identified by UNESCO as having exceptional universal value due to its biological characteristics. UNESCO states that “Biosphere reserves are regions of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems that promote methods to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are recognized on a global scale, selected by national governments, and continue to be governed by the sovereign authority of the states in which they are found.

History :-
Two years following the launch of the MAB-Man and biosphere program, UNESCO published the network of biosphere reserves in 1971. These regions are associated with the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), according the law. In addition to preserving nature, Biosphere Reserves seeks to strike a balance between social, economic, and cultural development. The Biosphere Reserve is not, however, governed by any laws. The first Biosphere Reserves were created in 1979, and today there are 701 Biosphere Reserves spread over 124 nations, with 21 transboundary locations.

Structure :-
Core Areas
A Biosphere Reserve’s Core Area is the most secure area and may contain indigenous species of flora and animals. It is the most suited place for a wide variety of plant and animal species, and it might also contain endemism centers. A core area is a national park or sanctuary that is governed by and protected by the Wildlife Act of 1972.

Buffer Zone
To put it simply, the buffer zone abuts or surrounds the core zone. The management of the activities and uses in this area contributes to the preservation of the core zones’ natural state.
Here, certain uses and activities are permitted to lessen their influence on the core zone, such as demonstrations, restoration projects to raise the value of the resources, tourism, limited recreation, grazing, fishing, etc.

Transition Zone
The Biosphere Reserve’s most remote area is this region. The most permissive action to promote sustainable human and economic development is allowed in this area. This covers settlements, farms, and woods that have been managed for economic purposes.

https://t.me/gsDIAS , the unique   and the state animal of Jammu and Kashmir, presently UT  has experienced a slight inc...

, the unique and the state animal of Jammu and Kashmir, presently UT has experienced a slight increase in its population after a period of two years.

1) Hangul, also known as Kashmir red stag, is an elk subspecies native to India. Previously, the Kashmir stag was classified as a subspecies of European red deer.
2) After a mitochondrial DNA genetic study revealed that Hangul belongs to the Asian family of elk, it was later classified as a subspecies of elk.
3) The Hangul was once widely distributed in the mountains of Kashmir Himalaya, the Chenab Valley in Jammu, and parts of the Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh; however, the only viable population is in the Greater Dachigam landscape north-east of Srinagar, centred on Dachigam National Park and adjoining protected areas.
4) Hangul live in groups in the riverine forests, high valleys, and mountains of Kashmir and the northern Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh.
5) The Hangul is the only surviving species of Asiatic red deer.
The male Hangul has antlers with 11 to 16 points.
6) It has been considered one of the most endangered mammal species in the Indian subcontinent since the 1950s.
7) The Hangul has been designated as a protected species under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972.


: 25/8/23
1) Driven to tears : page 8
2) India's G-20 opportunity for an African Renaissance: page 8
3) Should the CJI be part of the committee selecting the CEC : page 9
4) India and the Northern sea route : page 10
5) BRICS now a non - western grouping with the induction of six more member nations : page 12
6) Chandrayaan-3 mission : page 13
7) The eyes and ears of Pragyan: page 13

: 25/8/23
1) Xi and Modi agree to intensify efforts for expeditious disengagement along LAC : page 3
2) BRICS expands from 5 to 11 : page 3
3) Growth & the Tier 2 city : page 12
4) India's new car safety rating : page 15
5) Japan starts releasing Fukushima water into Pacific, it's seafood banned by China: page 16
6) PM bats for MSMEs : page 17
7) Russia must implement Black Sea Grain deal : page 17
8) India- UK FTA talks in final stages : page 17

India's Coast The 7516.6 km long Indian coastline covers nearly 6100 km of the continent’s land area, along with the isl...

India's Coast
The 7516.6 km long Indian coastline covers nearly 6100 km of the continent’s land area, along with the islands of Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep. 13 states and Union Territories are located along India’s coastline.

The eastern coastal plains are situated along the Bay of Bengal, whereas the western coastal plains are along the Arabian Sea.
Kachchh and Kathiawar coast: The coasts of Kachchh and Kathiawar were created by the sediments deposited by the Indus River. Kachchh was formerly a gulf. During the monsoons, the Kachchh region is separated into the Great Rann in the north and the Little Rann in the east by shallow water. Kathiawar, on the other hand, is located south of Kachchh.

Konkan coast: It stretches from Goa in the south to Daman in the north. The two main crops in this area are cashews and rice.

Kannada coast: It stretches between Marmagaon and Mangalore and is known as the Kannada coast.

Malabar coast: The comparatively broad Malabar coast stretches from Mangalore to Kanyakumari.


: 24/8/23
1) Chandrayaan-3 first to land near Moon's south pole : page 3
2) Next mission to moon with Japanese: page 3
3) PM : India backs BRICS expansion: page 10
4) Asking for moon - and getting it : page 12
5) A time for Africa: page 13
6) ISRO arc to future: page 15
7) Kalam and impact probe : page 15
8) G20 Jaipur meet : page 17

: 24/8/2022
1) India lights up the dark side of moon : page 1
2) On the Moon, over the moon : page 6
3) The UK -India relationship is alive with opportunity: page 6
4) What are the amendments to the Pakistan Army act? : page 8
5) Modi, Xi likely to attend East Asia summit: page 10
6) CR Rao , who pioneered several fundamental statistical concepts: page 10
7) How can 'One health ' help India: page 11
8) What next for ISRO after Chandrayaan-3 mission: page 11

Best wishes team ISRO - Indian Space Research Organisation India's third Lunar Mission makes a historic landing on the s...

Best wishes team
ISRO - Indian Space Research Organisation India's third Lunar Mission makes a historic landing on the surface of the Moon. Congratulations!Proud moment for all Indians.


: 23/8/23
1) Landing today: page 1,2
2) LAC commanders work on limited pullback plan : page 1,2
3) Biden to visit India for G20 summit : page 7
4) SC poly- vocal ,it represents diversity: CJI : page 8
5) Young Indians, aging workforce: page 9
6) BRICS might have been : page 10
7) Resisting landslides : page 10
8) Starting tomorrow, treated Fukushima water to enter sea : page 12
9) Price hike on some food items transitory, elevated inflation warrants greater vigil : FinMin : page 13

: 23/8/23
1) BRICS is a platform for Global South : page 1,10
2) Chandrayaan-3 lander all set for touchdown: page 1,10
3) NASA,ESA to support ISRO during moon landing : page 5
4) On protecting the biodiversity of the northeast : page 8
5) Causing floods is a terrorist offence in law to replace the Indian Penal Code : page 10
6) Bharat NCAP : page 12
7) Japan to release water from Fukushima nuclear plant: page 13

  was formed  in 1599 through the royal charter . Queen Elizabeth I was authorizing it to trade in the East. - Arrival o...

was formed in 1599 through the royal charter . Queen Elizabeth I was authorizing it to trade in the East.

- Arrival of the British and the establishment of British East India Company was the outcome of the Portuguese traders who earn enormous profit by selling their merchandise in India.
- Queen was herself a share holder in the East India Company.

Expansion in West & South
- In 1608 AD, the East India Company sent Captain William Hawkins to the court of the Mughal emperor Jahangir to secure royal patronage.
- He succeeded in getting royal permit for the Company to establish its factories at various places on the Western coast of India.
- Then in 1615 AD, Sir Thomas Roe was sent by Emperor James I of England to Jahangir’s court, with a plea for more concession for the Company.
- In the ensuing years the East India Company further expanded its base and flourished though it also faced challenges from the Portuguese, the Dutch and the French.
- The decisive moment came in 1662 AD, when Charles II of England married a Portuguese princess Katherine, and received the island of Bombay as dowry which he immediately gave to the East India Company in 1668 AD for 10 pounds per year.
- The Company on the West coast shifted its business headquarters from Surat to Bombay (Mumbai).
- In 1639 AD, the East India Company obtained the lease of the city of Madras from the local king where it built Fort St. George to protect its factory.
- Later Madras was made the South Indian headquarters of the Company.

Expansion in the East
- After establishing its factories in south and west India, the company started to focus on east India particularly Bengal a significant province Mughal empire.
- The governor of Bengal Sujauddaula in 1651 AD, allowed the English Company to carry out its trade activities in Bengal.
- A factory in Hugli was established and three villages -Sutanati, Govindapur and Kolkata- were purchased in 1698 AD by the Company to build a factory over there.
- Subsequently Fort William was raised in order to provide protection around the factory.
- The present day Kolkata grew and developed on this very site.

Indoor plants are the perfect way to bring a bit of nature into our home!Green Indoor Purifiers for your Indoor Spaces, ...

Indoor plants are the perfect way to bring a bit of nature into our home!

Green Indoor Purifiers for your Indoor Spaces, which look refreshing, colourful and have many health benefits.


: 22/8/23
1) Chandrayaan-3 reveals dark side of the moon : page 1
2) The BRICS test for India's multipolarity rhetoric : page 6
3) The Saudi Arabia- UAE divide becomes public : page 6
4) What are the concerns about drilling in the North Sea ? : page 8
5) All eyes on possible Xi - Modi meet as PM : page 10
6) Ecuadorians reject oil drilling in the Amazon: page 13

: 22/8/23
1) Chandrayaan-2 orbiter contacts Moon lander : 'Welcome buddy ' : page 3
2) India- China ties in focus as PM leaves for BRICS summit today: page 3
3) How to govern data : page 10
4) connect J&K dots : page 10
5) The case of Pak bills : page 13
6) Sharp rise in remittances for equity purchases: page 17
7) India, ASEAN to conclude FTA review in 2025 : page 17

National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI) unveiled new variety of  , which blooms with 108 petals. The lotus nam...

National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI) unveiled new variety of , which blooms with 108 petals. The lotus named ‘NBRI ’ is developed by , a premier plant-based multidisciplinary and national R&D centre.

“Lotus is the national flower of India and a symbol of faith for us. It is a new variety Lotus flower ‘Namoh 108’, first of its kind whose genome is completely sequenced for its characteristics.”

During the event, the Union minister also introduced clothing made from lotus fiber and a perfume named 'Frotus', which is extracted from lotus flowers.
The lotus has 108 petals and was discovered several years ago in Manipur and kept at the institute as part of its collection of flowers and plants, on which the institute conducts research.

It was only after the number of petals was discovered that the NBRI cloned and worked on improving its germplasm and modifying its characteristics in a way that it could be cultivated relatively easily outside of Manipur.

https://t.me/gsDIASAncient history /Art and cultureBrief outline about  Cholas were a powerful kingdom in the South of I...

Ancient history /Art and culture
Brief outline about
Cholas were a powerful kingdom in the South of India, whose influence extended beyond their territorial domains.

Tamil culture and the arts also reached its zenith during the Chola reign

Rock edicts II and XII of Ashoka rare the earliest historical documents to refer to the Cholas.

Imperial Cholas (Period from c. 850 – 1200 CE)

The Cholas are believed to have overthrown the Pallavas in south India

They extended their control in Sri Lanka and the Malay peninsula and are thus called ‘Imperial Cholas’.

Thousands of inscriptions found in the temples provide detailed information regarding the administration, society, economy and culture of the Chola period.

The founder of the Imperial Chola line was Vijayala.

1)Vijayala -

Earlier, a feudatory of the Pallavas.

Captured Tanjore and built a temple for Durga.

He ruled over the region to the north of the river Kaveri.


He put an end to the Pallava kingdom by defeating Aparajita and annexed Tondaimandalam (southern Tamil country).

3)Parantaka Ⅰ

He defeated the Pandyas and the ruler of Ceylon at the famous Battle of Vellur.

He suffered a defeat at the hands of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna Ⅲ in the famous battle of Takkolam

Parantaka Ⅰ was a great builder of temples. He also provided the vimana of the famous Nataraja temple at Chidambaram with a golden roof.

The two famous Uthiramerur inscriptions that give a detailed account of the village administration under the Cholas belong to his reign.

4)Parantaka Ⅱ/ Sundara Chola

Invaded Sri Lanka and regained some parts of Tondaimandalam.

5)Uttama Chola

6)Rajaraja Ⅰ/Arumolivarman (c. 985 – 1014 CE)

It was under Rajaraja Ⅰ and his son Rajendra Ⅰ that the Chola power reached its highest point of glory.

his military conquests:

-The defeat of the Pandya ruler, Amarabhujanga and the establishment of Chola authority in the Pandya country

-The defeat of the Chera ruler Bhaskara Ravivarman in the naval battle of Kandalur Salai and the destruction of the Chera navy.

-The invasion of Sri Lanka which was entrusted to his son Rajendra Ⅰ. As the Sri Lankan king Mahinda Ⅴ fled from his country, the Cholas annexed northern Sri Lanka.

-While he longed for ruling the entire Ceylon Island, the southern region of Ruhana remained beyond his reach, which was later successfully captured by his son, Rajendra.

-Another military achievement was a naval expedition against the Maldive Islands which were conquered.

The Chola victory over the growing power of the western Chalukyas of Kalyani.

-Hence, the Chola empire extended up to the river Tungabhadra.

-By his conquests, the extent of the Chola empire under Rajaraja Ⅰ included the Pandya, Chera and the Tondaimandalam regions of Tamil Nadu and the Gangavadi, Notambapadi and the Telugu Choda territories in the Deccan and the northern part of Ceylon and the Maldive Islands beyond India

-He constructed the famous Rajarajeshwara temple or Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore in 1010 CE. It is one of the largest temples in India and is an example of Dravidian architecture during the Chola period. The temple turned 1000 years old in 2010.
The temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the “Great Living Chola Temples”, with the other two being the Gangaikonda Cholapuram and Airavatesvara temple

-He developed an advanced revenue system wherein the land was surveyed and then revenue was assessed. He was referred to as “Ulagalanda Perumal” (the king who measured the earth

7)-Rajendra Ⅰ (c. 1014 – 1044 CE)

Rajendra Ⅰ demonstrated his military capabilities by participating in his father’s campaigns. He continued his father’s policy of aggressive conquests and expansion.

During his reign, the whole of Sri Lanka was made part of the Chola empire.He reasserted the Chola authority over the Chera and Pandya countries.He defeated Jayasimha Ⅱ – the western Chalukya king and the river Tungabadhra was recognised as the boundary between the Cholas and the ChalukyasHis most famous military enterprisewas his expedition to North India. The Chola empire crossed the Ganges by defeating a number of rulers on its way. Rajendra Ⅰ defeated Mahipala Ⅰ (Pala empire) of Benga

To commemorate this successful north India campaign, Rajendra Ⅰ founded the city of Gangaikondacholapuram and constructed the famous Rajesvaram temple in that city.

At the death of Rajendra Ⅰ, the extent of the Chola empire was at its peak. The river Tungabhadra was the northern boundary, the Pandya, Kerala, Mysore regions and also Sri Lanka formed part of the empire.


12)Kulottunga Ⅰ (c. 1070 – 1122 CE)

Kulottunga Ⅰ sent a large embassy of 72 merchants to China and maintained cordial relations with the kingdom of Sri Vijaya.

He united the Vengi kingdom of Chalukyas with the Chola empire.

The classic writer Kamban (who wrote Ramayana in Tamil) was at his court.

The later rulers like Kulottunga Ⅱ, Rajaraja Ⅱ, and Kulottunga Ⅲ tried to maintain the Chola rule but it gradually suffered a downfall and came to an end in the 13th century. The Cholas were replaced by the Pandyas and the Hoysalas in the south, and of the later Chalukyas by the Yadavas and the Kakatiyas. These states were continuously in a state of war with each other and hence, weakened themselves. Finally, at the beginning of the 14th century, they were destroyed by the Sultans of Delhi.

Chola Village Administration

The Chola village administration had two types of assemblies.

Ur – The general assembly of the local residents of non Brahmadeya villages.It is believed that members of the assembly were less than ten.

Sabha or Mahasabha – Two inscriptions belonging to the period of Parantaka Ⅰ found at Uttaramerur provide details about the formation and functioning of Sabhas

The Sabha was an assembly of Brahmans/adult male members in the agraharas i.e, rent-free Brahmadeya villages which enjoyed a large measure of autonomy.

Land revenue was the main source of income for the Chola empire and it was usually one-sixth of the produce. The revenue was collected by the village assembly and was paid in cash, kind or both.

The caste system was prevalent in the society and the condition of the Paraiyar (untouchables) was miserable.
The higher orders like the Brahamans and Kshatriyas enjoyed special privileges. The Chola inscriptions mention the major divisions among the castes:

-Valangai – mainly artisans and trading class.
-Idangai – mainly agricultural groups.

Under the patronage of Chola kings and queens, a large number of temples were built. Brahmana Sabha was involved in the management of finances and maintenance of the temples.

Brahmanism (Shaivism and Vaishnavism) continued to flourish during the Chola reign.

The economy was mainly agrarian – reclamation of forest land, construction of irrigation tanks, expansion in the variety of crops led to agricultural prosperity

The industrial sector also witnessed a leap in the Chola period e.g, Kanchipuram emerged as an important weaving industry centre

The classic writer Kamban wrote Ramayana in Tamil.

The famous trinity of Pampa, Ponna and Ranna were the three priced jewels of Kannada poetry.

The works being returned are :child saint sambandar
Dancing saint child sambandar of 12 century

Sambandar- Sambandar, the popular seventh-century child saint, is one of the muvar, the three principal saints of South India.


: 21/8/23
1) Russia's moon craft crashes : page 3
2) A rock and 2 pillars : page 6
3) The hunger challenges: page 10
4) Preparing for a disruption: page 11
5) Pak president denies signing 2 bills passed in Parliament: page 12
6) GE mustard : page 14
7) Why Hurricane Hilary: page 14
8) National e- commerce policy : page 15

: 21/8/23
1) After second de-boost , Chandrayaan-3 on glide path to moon: page 1
2) Why Shimla is crumbling: page 7
3) What is RBI's new pilot for frictionless credit: page 8
4) Payment crisis leads to uncertainty: page 10
5) Luna 25 : page 13
6) Pakistan's president refuses to sign new national security laws : page 13
7) The vagaries and dangers of space : page 11

Today is  , marking the beginning of the ten day   festivities in  . People decorate their house with Pookalam which con...

Today is , marking the beginning of the ten day festivities in . People decorate their house with Pookalam which continues for the next ten days.
People wearing traditional attire, visited temples across the State. Floral carpets or pookkalams are being laid in front of houses, as a symbolic gesture to welcome King Mahabali, who was sent to the netherworld by Vamana, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

“The ‘Voice of Global South Summit’ under the theme ‘Unity of Voice, Unity of Purpose’ envisages bringing together count...

“The ‘Voice of Global South Summit’ under the theme ‘Unity of Voice, Unity of Purpose’ envisages bringing together countries .

Additionally, 8 Ministerial sessions will also be held, with the following themes:

1. Finance Ministers’ Session on "Financing People-Centric Development”
2. Environment Ministers’ Session on "Balancing Growth with Environment Friendly Lifestyles (LiFE)”
3. Foreign Ministers’ Session on "Priorities of the Global South - Ensuring a Conducive Environment”
4. Energy Ministers’ Session on "Energy Security and Development- Roadmap to Prosperity”
5. Health Ministers’ Session on "Cooperation to Build Resilient Healthcare Systems”
6. Education Ministers’ Session on "Human Resource Development and Capacity Building”
7. Commerce and Trade Ministers’ Session on "Developing Synergies in the Global South - Trade, Technology, Tourism and Resources”
8. Foreign Ministers’ Session on "G-20: Suggestions for India’s Presidency”

World mosquito day -Mosquitoes are responsible for more than one million deaths each year, more deaths caused by any oth...

World mosquito day
-Mosquitoes are responsible for more than one million deaths each year, more deaths caused by any other animal on earth.

-According to the World Health Organization, malaria alone leads to approximately 400,000 deaths annually.

Akshay Urja Diwas • Every year, the world celebrates Indian Akshay Urja Diwas on August 20. The day also marks the birth...

Akshay Urja Diwas
• Every year, the world celebrates Indian Akshay Urja Diwas on August 20. The day also marks the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.
• It is celebrated to make people aware of the use of natural sources of energy like biogas, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectrical power.

• The day intends to make people aware of the uses and importance of renewable energy sources.
• The first-ever memorial stamp commemorating this day was issued in 2004 by former Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh.

Related Facts
• According to various reports, India is the third-largest consumer of electricity.
• It is also the third-largest producer of renewable energy with 136GW out of 373GW of total energy capacity generated from renewable resources.
• The next target set to achieve for India is the production of 225GW energy through green resources.

• Today is the birth anniversary of our former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. • Every year, 20th August is obser...

• Today is the birth anniversary of our former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi.
• Every year, 20th August is observed as Sadbhavana Diwas, a day of communal harmony, peace, integration among Indians.
• We behold the uniqueness of our diverse culture, tradition, state but one harmony of unity holds all of us together. That is what Sadbhavana Diwas stands for.
• Rajiv Gandhi was the youngest Prime Minister. He announced a National Policy on Education in 1986 to modernise and expand higher education programs across India.
• He founded a central government based institution namely Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya System in 1986 to uplift the rural section of the society providing them free residential education from 6th till 12 class.
• Due to his efforts, MTNL established in 1986 and also created public call offices (PCOs) for spreading telephones in rural areas.
• On the occasion of Sadbhavana Diwas, a pledge is taken every year to pay tribute to Rajiv Gandhi and take a step towards a better India.

Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award
• In 1992, the Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana award was instituted in memory of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.
• Every year this award is given to those who have devoted their lives to understanding and promoting social harmony.
• This award constitutes a citation and cash Prize of Rs 10 Lakh.


: 20/8/23
1) PM seeks a secure digital economy: page 1
2) Raptors make power towers their home : page 1
3) Minister unveils lotus variety Namoh 108 : page 6
4) G-20 countries to strengthen global health architecture: page 8
5) WHO- managed grid to promote equitable across to digital health: page 8
6) Blood trail from 1857 war to a flight down south : page 8
7) WHO - managed grid to promote equitable access to digital health: page 10
8) Why is BRICS summit important for India? : page 11
9) How is the SC tackling gender stereotyping ? : page 11

: 20/8/23
1) UP, Gujarat among top 5 states in New investments: page 5
2) Ahead of G 20 : page 5
3) Modi at G20 meet : page 9
4) Govt. Unveils green hydrogen standards: page 15
5) India's foreign exchange reserves rise $708 millions to $602.16 billion: page 15


: 19/8/23
1) No SC stay on publication of Bihar caste survey data : page 1
2) Innovations in healthcare must be for public good : page 1
3) Chandrayaan-3: page 3
4) A fab way to conduct India- Japan tech diplomacy: page 6
5) Signs of revival amid trade slump : page 11

: 19/8/23
1) Moody'bullish on growth: page 1
2) Prepare for next health emergency: page 6
3) India sets up its first 3D - printed post office: page 7
4) Carrying hope : page 10
5) US, Japan and S Korea to enter into security pact for the Pacific: page 12
6) As Chandrayaan-3 and Luna 25 Prepare to land on moon : page 13
7)At every rate revision ; page 15
8) India to hold FTA meetings with UK : page 15

MINERAL BELTS.  North eastern peninsular belt :- This belt comprising of chota Nagpur plateau, and Odisha belt in the st...

North eastern peninsular belt :- This belt comprising of chota Nagpur plateau, and Odisha belt in the state of Jharkhand, west Bengal and odisha is the richest mineral belt of india.

Central belt :- This belt encompassing parts of chattisgarh, MP, Telangana, Andhra P and Maharashtra is the second largest mineral belt of india.

Southern belt :- It covers mostly the Karnataka plateau but extends over the contiguous Tamil nadu upland.

South-western belt :- Western Karnataka and Goa included in this belt. It has deposits of Iron ore, Garnet and clay.

North-western belt :- This belt extends along the aravalis in Rajasthan and in adjoining parts of Gujarat.

Outside the main belts described above, Minerals in some other parts of the country are scattered here and there.

Assam has reserves of petroleum and lignite.

The Himalayan region has some deposits of coal, bauxite, copper, slate etc.

Mumbai high and Godavari basin have reserves of oil and natural gas.


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: 31/5/23
1) Scientists team discovers new exoplanet with mass 13 times that of Jupiter: page 6
2) Universal cover : page 8
3) Unboxing the export turnaround in India's Toy story : page 8
4) Fresh excavation reveals pre - Mauryan era : page 14
5) Chinese mission with first civilian reaches space : page 15
6) India's growth momentum likely to sustain in FY24 : RBI : page 16

: 31/5/23
1) India to host 22nd SCO summit: page 13
2) Welcome caution : page 14
3) Curbing airplane emissions: page 17
4) President in Govt contracts : page 17
5) What is a Foucault's Pendulum : page 17
6) China launches New spaceship : page 19
7) India's growth momentum to sustain in FY24 : PAGE 21
Alleppey Coir, a tag from , is made from coconut fibre extractions retted and beaten into golden wires manually by the artisans. Spun into yarn on traditional spinning wheels called “Ratts”, the yarns are then dyed in the required colours and woven to make different products like coir mats, rugs, tiles, baskets etc.
is celebrated on May 30 as it was on this day in 1987 that Goa ceased to be a Union Territory and became the 25th state of India.

Goa was annexed by India and liberated from the Portuguese rule on December 19, 1961, after 451 years. It became a Union Territory along with Daman and Diu under the President of India.

Over 20 years after the Opinion Poll, Goa was declared a separate state on May 30, 1987. However, this was only possible because Goa had voted in favour of a separate statehood in the 1967 Opinion Poll.

* In 1961, India launched Operation Vijay against the Portuguese and annexed Goa and Daman and Diu with the Indian mainland.
* Goa then became a Union Territory along with Daman and Diu.
* Once Goa was liberated from colonial rule, there was a controversy regarding merging Goa with the neighbouring state of Maharashtra or Mysore.
* In 1967, a referendum called the ‘Goa Opinion Poll’ was held, where voters were asked to decide whether the Union Territory should be merged with Maharashtra or should remain separate.
* The mandate was against the merger, and the Union Territory continued as before.
* In 1987, Goa achieved statehood, and Daman and Diu became a separate Union Territory.

Basic Facts:
* Capital: Panaji

Natural Resources
1. Forests
* The state has a total forest cover of more than 1,424 sq. km covering almost one-third of the total area.
* Forests provide important products namely bamboo, Maratha barks, chillar barks and bhirand, which are of great economic value for rural mass.
* Coconut trees are present in almost the whole of Goa except in the upper regions.
* Goa’s vegetation also includes cashew, mango, jackfruits and pineapples.

2. Minerals
* Goa is rich in mineral resources. Major minerals include iron ore, manganese, ferro-manganese, bauxite and silica sand.
* Iron and manganese mining industries are the backbone of Goa’s economy.
: 30/5/23
1) Faster, stronger : page 6
2) The Erdogan victory ,a triumph for Ottoman glory : page 6
3) What has India done to curb unnecessary hysterectomies? : page 8
4) Understanding the violence faced by Healthcare professionals in India: page 9
5) Northeast gets its Vande Bharat Express: page 10
6) Pradhan discusses skill development with Singapore: page 10
7) ISRO's GSLV rocket takes navigation satellites into transfer orbit successfully: page 12
8) UN peacekeeping mission: page 12

: 30/5/23
1) ISRO launches first of five second- Gen satellites: page 10
2) J&K gets its first full- fledged zoo at Khanpur Nagrota : page 10
3) Odisha launches new credit - linked housing scheme for the rural poor : page 10
4) A depleting force : page 12
5)Slow and slower : page 12
6) Uganda enacts harsh anti LGBTQ law : page 15
8) China announces plan to land astronauts on moon by end of 2030: page 15
9) Amid rising ocean threats in NYC : page 15

will start from 6/june/23 :-

For exam / : recorded classes /live classes/offline +content+ test papers

For details:- call and what's app 9810236711, 9315485607

Registration open for new batch for CSE

For exam : recorded classes +content+ test papers

For details:- call and what's app 9810236711, 9315485607
: 29/5/23
1) India gets new Parliament house : page 1
2) Shrinking snow cover continues to haunt Himachal Pradesh: page 4
3) A belligerence towards Beijing: page 8
4) At Hiroshima, Japan's moment to reinforce partnership: page 8
5) Why is the 1.5 degree Celsius target critical? : page 10
6) India sees reduction in stunting : page 14
7) From prevalence in eight states in 2001 : page 14
8) Antarctic alarm bells over slowing down of overturning circulation: page 11

: 29/5/23
1) New Parliament Building will become basis for creation of a new India: page 3
2) Once out of print : page 9
3) Nutrition in a warmer world: page 10
4) Symbolism of the Sengol: page 13
5) Model Prisons act 2023: page 13
As the new building of India’s Parliament is inaugurated, our hearts and minds are filled with pride, hope and promise. May this iconic building be a cradle of empowerment, igniting dreams and nurturing them into reality.
: 28/5/23
1) Telangana's gongadi shawls refashioned into shoes : page 4
2) U.K Minister Tariq begins India visit : page 10
3) Cheetahs introduced without considering spatial ecology: page 12
4) Iron fortification: page 12
5) Why are Cheetah cubs dying In Kuno reserves: page 13
6) How can citizens file census details online ? : page 13
7) will AI tools help detect telecom fraud ?: page 13

: 28/5/23
1) Nepal PM starts India visit on May 31 : page 8
2) Iraq unveils $17 billion project to link Europe, Asia : page 12
3) Govt didn't introduce any new tax during Pandemic, says FM: page 13
4) PSU's dividends worth at least $300 MN stuck in Russia: page 13
The will to win,the desire to succeed, The urge to reach your full potential. These are the keys to unlock the door to personal excellence. .
Wish all the best to students, appearing in Civil services examination (prelims) -2023

Check List for IAS/IPS/IFS Aspirants appearing in UPSC CSE Prelims 2023 on May 28:

1) Admit Card Print Out (Hall Ticket)
2) Valid ID Card
3) Two Passport size photos (if your photo on the hall ticket is not clear)
4) Two Black Colour Ball Point Pen
5) Face Mask( Optional)
6) Hand Sanitiser (Optional)
7) Watch (Recommended)
8) Water Bottle (Optional)

Other Important Items You Should Carry to the Exam Hall (Strongly Recommended)

1. Your Knowledge
2. Your Self-Confidence
3. Your Common Sense
4. Your Logic
5. Your Quick Decision Making Skills
6. Your Quick Problem-Solving Skills
7. Your Intelligent Elimination Techniques (IET)
8. Your Determination to Succeed.

All the best!
Marks analysis in
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, also fondly called as Chacha Nehru was a renowned Nationalist leader who was elected as the Prime Minister of the independent country in 1947.

Nehru was also a prolific writer and orator and authored books like 'The Discovery of India' and 'Glimpses of the World History'.

* His education and schooling was from England and he returned to India in 1912 and practiced law till 1916.
* He then got elected as the president of the Indian National Congress.
* Nehru had called for complete independence from the British Raj in 1929.
* He opposed the notion of country's separation on the basis of religion suggestioned by Louis Mountbatten.
* When he became the prime minister of independent India, Nehru had initiated socio-economic policies of the idealistic socialist kind.
* Nehru's first commitment was to make India a self-sufficient economy. As a result, he set up temples of modern learning and giant public sector industries that catered to the needs of a growing nation and its people.
* He formed the policy of positive neutrality against cold war and become a key leader of the Non Aligned countries in Asia and Africa.
* Creating the Planning Commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the government's investments in industries and agriculture.
* Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural production.
* He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India.
* His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management.

He was very fond of children and known for his love for them, which is why his birthday is nationally celebrated as Children's Day on 14 November.

Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehru's memory. The Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi is among the most prestigious universities in India.
: 27/5/23
1) Only six religions options make it to next census form : page 1
2) Souvenirs show sceptre was given to Mountbatten : page 8
3) European union official seeks to allay India's concerns on carbon tax : page 9
4) India, Nepal may sign pacts on energy: page 9
5) Navy, ISRO release training plan for Gaganyaan crew : page 10
6) Darjeeling to join the list of most polluted cities of west Bengal: page 10
7) Bhutan, China claim progress in boundary expert group talks : page 11

: 27/5/23
1) US defence secy to visit India next week : page 8
2) Govt appoints chief Justices of five HCs: page 9
3) The US and the Bangladesh: page 13
4) Indus civilisation Dancing girl and her story : page 13
5) Plan being discussed to create petroleum reserves: page 17