The Breakthrough Institute

The Breakthrough Institute The Breakthrough Institute is a pioneering research institute changing how people think about energy and the environment.
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We use twice as much land for pasture as we do for growing crops.That's bad news: it threatens biodiversity; worsens cli...
06/17/2019

We use twice as much land for pasture as we do for growing crops.

That's bad news: it threatens biodiversity; worsens climate change.

Here's the good news: global pasture has peaked and declined in the last 20 years.

New Breakthrough report out today: bit.ly/BTI_pasture

Our new illustrated guide to nitrogen pollution.bit.ly/BTI_nitrogen
05/08/2019

Our new illustrated guide to nitrogen pollution.

bit.ly/BTI_nitrogen

Impossible Foods is getting a lot of attention lately, and we're here for it. Changing people's diets is really hard, an...
04/29/2019

Impossible Foods is getting a lot of attention lately, and we're here for it. Changing people's diets is really hard, and beef's environmental footprint is really large.

But one crucial question remains: does it taste as good as it looks? Breakthrough staff reviews: https://thebreakthrough.org/issues/food/impossible-burger-review

As the national debate around the Green New Deal continues — with no end, or meaningful legislation, in sight — states h...
04/19/2019

As the national debate around the Green New Deal continues — with no end, or meaningful legislation, in sight — states have been quietly forging ahead on climate.

The latest from Jameson McBride on how to elevate state climate policy: https://thebreakthrough.org/issues/energy/state-climate-policy

The problem of energy poverty is widely acknowledged. About one billion people have little to no access to electricity, ...
03/15/2019

The problem of energy poverty is widely acknowledged. About one billion people have little to no access to electricity, and many more lack the financial means to consume electricity at levels that might support a developed-country standard of living. To support countries that have yet to attain meaningful, country-wide electrification, we should look to history for lessons on how it was achieved. In our newest report, we look at five examples of successful universal electrification: the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Thailand, and China.

The Road More Traveled: Case Studies in Universal Electrification. Read it here: https://thebreakthrough.org/articles/the-road-more-traveled

In the newest Breakthrough Journal, food writer Felisa Rogers documents the impacts of the global boom in artisanal mezc...
02/25/2019

In the newest Breakthrough Journal, food writer Felisa Rogers documents the impacts of the global boom in artisanal mezcal on Mexico’s environment and communities. Exoticism and uniqueness may have established the market for high-end mezcal, but cultivation and a move toward standardization are the only things that will save it.

Bad Liquor: How Marketing Primitivism Threatens Mexico's Environment and Rural Communities

https://thebreakthrough.org/journal/no-10-winter-2019/bad-liquor

Why is it so hard to find an affordable home in the San Francisco Bay Area? Is it possible for housing to be both afford...
02/11/2019

Why is it so hard to find an affordable home in the San Francisco Bay Area? Is it possible for housing to be both affordable and a wealth generator? And what do vomiting anarchists and burrowing owls have to do with it, anyway? Kim-Mai Cutler, one of the leading voices in urban policy, takes a deep, historical dive into how we got into this mess. She touches on everything from tech jobs to population growth, wildfires to tax codes, systemic racial inequalities to the inheritance of home ownership.

Tune in to our latest podcast episode: https://bit.ly/2UX4kkF

We are thrilled to announce the newest (10th!) issue of the Breakthrough Journal, out today. The theme: Eco-Identity Pol...
02/06/2019

We are thrilled to announce the newest (10th!) issue of the Breakthrough Journal, out today. The theme: Eco-Identity Politics. By examining everything from artisanal mezcal to school gardens, human housing reserves to ranching in the American West, our contributors explore what it means to be an environmentalist in a modern society.

Find all the essays, poems, cartoons, reviews, responses, and (new this year!) a data visualization here: thebreakthrough.org/journal/no-10-winter-2019

As the President of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, George Sparks always has better science communication on the ...
01/29/2019

As the President of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, George Sparks always has better science communication on the mind. Up first: a new definition of science – one with a lowercase “s.” We tend to think of science as a cerebral, individual activity, like chess; really, it’s more like rugby: a messy team sport. For better public policy, we need a transparent triad between journalists, policymakers, and scientists: ripe with honesty, centered around values, and grounded in better relationships.

New podcast episode: https://bit.ly/2HCCybg

We often think of progress and failure as mutually exclusive. Hannah Ritchie says otherwise: there can be single catastr...
01/14/2019

We often think of progress and failure as mutually exclusive. Hannah Ritchie says otherwise: there can be single catastrophic events within larger narratives of human progress. At Our World in Data, Hannah couches data-driven analyses into big-picture stories, making OWID the go-to reference on basic global trends. She finds compatibility between narratives of human destruction and human progress, always motivated by the thought that the world could be a really good place.

Look for the Breakthrough Dialogues on Spotify, Apple Podcasts, Stitcher, or whatever your preferred platform.

Season 2 of the Breakthrough Dialogues premieres on Monday, starting with data wiz Hannah Ritchie of Our World in Data. ...
01/10/2019

Season 2 of the Breakthrough Dialogues premieres on Monday, starting with data wiz Hannah Ritchie of Our World in Data.

The Breakthrough Dialogues takes everything we love about our events — the productive disagreement, the direct engagement with interdisciplinary experts, the thoughtful questions that move beyond tribalism and into more constructive spaces — and wraps it all up into concise conversations. Upcoming episodes include everything from land sparing to science education, African energy systems to San Francisco urban planning.

Catch up on Season 1 while you wait: https://breakthroughdialogues.org/episodes

It’s no coincidence that the fastest decarbonization rates have occurred in centralized, state-dominated energy systems....
12/19/2018

It’s no coincidence that the fastest decarbonization rates have occurred in centralized, state-dominated energy systems. The Green New Deal proposed by Rep.-elect Ocasio-Cortez seems to be the sort of climate "Medicare for All" we've been looking for — but it consists of relatively traditional, Obama-era market-oriented policies.

Jameson McBride's latest: The Green New Deal and the Legacy of Public Power.

https://thebreakthrough.org/issues/energy/the-green-new-deal-and-the-legacy-of-public-power

12/13/2018
thebreakthrough.org - revamped

Friendly to screens of any size, organized by research area, and easy to engage with: the new thebreakthrough.org.

Check us out! thebreakthrough.org
12/13/2018

Check us out! thebreakthrough.org

A #GivingTuesday read: where climate philanthropy has been, and where it needs to go next, from Rachel Pritzker and Ted ...
11/27/2018
A Bigger Tent: Where Climate Philanthropy Needs to Go Next

A #GivingTuesday read: where climate philanthropy has been, and where it needs to go next, from Rachel Pritzker and Ted Nordhaus: https://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2018/6/13/a-bigger-tent-where-climate-philanthropy-needs-to-go-next

Guest contributors Rachel Pritzker and Ted Nordhaus argue that green funders need to invest in a much wider array of organizations and approaches if they hope to move the needle on climate change.

11/07/2018
Ecomodernism 2018: The Art of Changing Your Mind

We're living in deeply polarized times, as yesterday's midterm elections made clear. With people clustering around poles that feel further and further away, we're eager to showcase the outliers that have been able to change their minds about something big. Here's Eli Lehrer, Rachel Pritzker, and Tisha Schuller on how they shifted from one position to another.

https://youtu.be/huczqM5LdDg

Sticking to one’s ideological priors is easy. Changing your mind is hard. In this after dinner discussion, The Atlantic’s Robinson Meyer will interview three...

It's a wrap!The theme of this year’s Ecomodernism event was Achieving Disagreement — a notion that longtime followers of...
10/04/2018

It's a wrap!

The theme of this year’s Ecomodernism event was Achieving Disagreement — a notion that longtime followers of Breakthrough will be familiar with. Ecomodernism has always attracted thinkers from many different disciplines and ideological backgrounds. Our goal in bringing this community together has not been merely to find common ground, nor to simply host conventional arguments, but to reach a deeper understanding of each other’s worldviews.

A new state law signed this month, SB 100, requires all of California’s electricity to come from zero-carbon sources (in...
09/24/2018

A new state law signed this month, SB 100, requires all of California’s electricity to come from zero-carbon sources (including nuclear energy) by 2045. But California also enacted a moratorium in the 1970s that bans the construction of new nuclear plants. For the best chance at meeting SB 100's goals, Sacramento must repeal this outdated ban.

Ted Nordhaus and Jameson Randall McBride in the Los Angeles Times: http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-nordhaus-mcbride-end-nuclear-moratorium-20180924-story.html

California just passed a 100% clean energy standard. Check out our recent report with Third Way on the increasingly popu...
09/13/2018

California just passed a 100% clean energy standard. Check out our recent report with Third Way on the increasingly popular policy: thebreakthrough.org/index.php/issues/energy/clean-energy-standards

In April 2015, Breakthrough and 18 co-authors published An Ecomodernist Manifesto. Since then, ecomodernism has provided...
09/05/2018

In April 2015, Breakthrough and 18 co-authors published An Ecomodernist Manifesto. Since then, ecomodernism has provided the language and ideas for an optimistic, future-oriented environmentalism.

The ideas that catalyzed a movement: https://ecomodernistmanifesto.squarespace.com

The carbon intensity of the world energy supply is essentially flat (in the case of industry and commerce, it's actually...
08/31/2018

The carbon intensity of the world energy supply is essentially flat (in the case of industry and commerce, it's actually increasing). The onus is on political and business leaders to accelerate world decarbonization, or it will not happen.

Progress (or not) in global emissions: https://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/voices/decarbonization-by-sector

Climate change requires every tool in the toolbox, so learning how to work well with others in different technologies is...
08/23/2018

Climate change requires every tool in the toolbox, so learning how to work well with others in different technologies is crucial, Suzy Baker tells us.

While Suzy now works primarily on nuclear energy and carbon capture as Third Way's Communications Director, her story is an unusual one. She studied fine arts, and spent her school years making sculptures of ocean bacteria to visually advocate for the importance of ocean health. After graduation, her resume grew increasingly diverse: art teacher at a pediatric oncology hospital, NGO founder working on nuclear digital campaigns in the Southeast, artist focused on lead poisoning awareness, policy analyst at the US Department of Energy… The list goes on and on. Her unique background made her an expert in collaborative, cooperative, audience-aware science communications, as well as an incredible podcast guest.

Here's what she's learned along the way: bit.ly/2PolR3f

What if we set aside half the earth for nature?In a new paper, Breakthrough Senior Fellow Erle Ellis, along with co-auth...
08/21/2018
Toward a Half-Earth Future -- How Agricultural Intensification Can Minimize Conservation Trade-offs

What if we set aside half the earth for nature?

In a new paper, Breakthrough Senior Fellow Erle Ellis, along with co-authors Zia Mehrabi and Navin Ramankutty, examine the practicalities of the ‘Half-Earth’ conservation vision. They find that it will be difficult, though not impossible, to avoid trade-offs between conservation, agriculture, grazing, and other human systems. In a response to the paper, Breakthrough’s Linus Blomqvist, Kenton de Kirby, and Ted Nordhaus argue that agricultural intensification and smart landscape-level planning will be needed to minimize those trade-offs and ensure that the most biodiverse regions are protected.

https://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/voices/half-earth

Over the last several years, a growing network of conservationists, through efforts like the Nature Needs Half network, has proposed an audacious goal for 21st century conservation: set aside half of the earth’s land area for nature. As an aspirational goal, the concept has inspired. Rather than f...

The New York Times Opinion Section
08/15/2018
The New York Times Opinion Section

The New York Times Opinion Section

At least nine states could be getting more than half their power from low-emitting sources by the mid-2020s. Here's how.

"The challenge of nuclear waste is not 'solved,' and nuclear advocates must take public concern about the fuel cycle ser...
08/07/2018

"The challenge of nuclear waste is not 'solved,' and nuclear advocates must take public concern about the fuel cycle seriously... Developing innovative solutions to the waste problem is severely needed for the past, present, and future of nuclear in the US."

Our energy analyst, Jameson McBride, on how to think about nuclear waste: thebreakthrough.org/voices/beyond-yucca-mountain

Ever touched a plant to check whether it was “natural” or not? Is clean meat “real”? Does nuclear energy count as part o...
08/06/2018

Ever touched a plant to check whether it was “natural” or not? Is clean meat “real”? Does nuclear energy count as part of the primal order? What IS nature, anyway, and does it matter?

This week on the Breakthrough Dialogues podcast: Alan Levinovitz on our innate drive to categorize and moralize, and whether that's useful for conservation (and beyond). As a religious studies professor at James Madison University and a well-known food journalist and book author, Alan is uniquely positioned to tackle these questions.

breakthroughdialogues.org

08/03/2018
Breakthrough Dialogue 2018: Rising Tides

Every year, the Breakthrough Institute hosts two days of focused conversation in service of a mission larger than anyone in the room: new thought for a new politics for a new century.

A ban on straws is a straw man argument.Yes, it’s meant to leverage a larger conversation about single-use plastic and p...
07/31/2018

A ban on straws is a straw man argument.

Yes, it’s meant to leverage a larger conversation about single-use plastic and plastic waste in waterways and other ecosystems. But the focus on straws surfaces two related problems with “lifestyle environmentalism.” (1) We should be honest about the scale of the problems and the results of our actions, and (2) If environmentalism becomes about vilifying so many of life’s small pleasures and conveniences, it might turn people away, not rally them to the cause.

thebreakthrough.org/index.php/voices/grasping-at-straws

How can philanthropies give with impact?Rachel Pritzker has thought a lot about this question. As founder and president ...
07/27/2018

How can philanthropies give with impact?

Rachel Pritzker has thought a lot about this question. As founder and president of the Pritzker Innovation Fund, and an ecomodernist thought leader in her own right, Rachel has focused on US innovation policy, advanced nuclear power, and energy for human development in emerging economies. She challenges conventional wisdom to get complete clarity: what, exactly, is the problem, and what are the underlying drivers? What solutions are being overlooked? Instead of staying gridlocked in old battles, Rachel seeks new ideas that are less politically rigid and offer space for bipartisan action.

While Rachel Pritzker is a signatory of the Ecomodernist Manifesto and chair of the Breakthrough Institute’s board, she wasn’t always an ecomodernist. In fact, she tells us that one of her earliest memories is of protesting nuclear energy; she grew up on a goat farm, with parents devoted to the back-to-the-land movement and a general skepticism of technology. Listen to the latest Breakthrough Dialogues episode to hear the story of how her thinking has changed.

https://bit.ly/2v3sRJp

Last week, we told you about the latest research from our food & ag team: the synthetic-organic debate distracts from th...
07/25/2018
To Cut Nitrogen Pollution, Move Past the Synthetic-Organic Debate -- There's No Silver Bullet Solution

Last week, we told you about the latest research from our food & ag team: the synthetic-organic debate distracts from the real issue of nitrogen pollution. This week, Steve Suppan, Senior Policy Analyst at the Institute for Agriculture & Trade Policy responded: sure, the debate is polarized and unproductive. But this isn't a technological issue to be solved by technological means; for real change, farmers need policy incentives.

https://bit.ly/2NEdQFG

To address the environmental challenges of nitrogen pollution, many advocate for a universal switch to organic farming, which eliminates the use of synthetic fertilizer. But talking about “organic” as a monolithic category doesn’t make very much sense: organic encapsulates both animal manure a...

4th Generation Blog
07/19/2018
4th Generation Blog

4th Generation Blog

Important essay by Ted Nordhaus of The Breakthrough Institute asking questions about how we as a species make it to the next phase of civilization without blowing up the planet, or sinking into the depths of poverty. Hint: technology is an essential part of the solution.

Arguing about whether organic or synthetic fertilizers are better for the environment is largely a dead end. Instead, th...
07/19/2018

Arguing about whether organic or synthetic fertilizers are better for the environment is largely a dead end. Instead, the solution lies in getting past the unproductive organic-synthetic debate. Let's focus on measures that increase the efficiency of all fertilizers and that reduce nitrogen losses.

How to move beyond the binary debate, and into pollution-minimizing solutions: thebreakthrough.org/index.php/issues/the-future-of-food/cutting-nitrogen-pollution

Varun Sivaram is really excited about the potential of solar energy. Every hour, more sunlight hits the Earth in the for...
07/11/2018

Varun Sivaram is really excited about the potential of solar energy. Every hour, more sunlight hits the Earth in the form of energy than the world uses in a whole year, so the abundance alone is hugely significant. And yet, like others within the energy sector, the solar industry has been slow to invest in innovation: “My dad is in the semiconductor industry,” Varun tells us, “and I've seen how fast they innovate and how much money companies plow back into R&D as a proportion of their revenues. It's over 10%, in comparison to less than 1% for the solar industry.” To increase solar’s share of the energy mix, then, the industry must re-double its enthusiasm for innovation, which will ultimately help its long-term success.

In our newest podcast episode, Alex Trembath and Emma Brush sit down with Varun, one of the world's foremost advocates for solar innovation and a pleasure to chat with. Find the conversation on iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, Pocket Casts, or whatever your favorite app is - just look for the Breakthrough Dialogues.

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Because the albedo/atmosphere reflect 30% of the incoming solar energy the earth is cooler with that albedo/atmosphere than without. Without an atmosphere the earth would receive 30% more kJ/h becoming a barren rock much like the moon, hot^3 on the lit side, cold^3 on the dark. This observation is easily confirmed by comparisons with the moon as Nikolov, Kramm suggest and UCLA Diviner mission observes. This refutes the RGHE theory which postulates just the opposite, that the earth sans atmosphere would be a -430 F ball of ice or 288 K w/ - 255 K w/o = 33 C cooler. (Rubbish!) Because of the non-radiative heat transfer processes of the contiguous participating atmospheric molecules, 396 W/m^2 of BB LWIR upwelling from the surface is not possible. As I demonstrate in the grand science tradition of performing experiments: https://principia-scientific.org/debunking-the-greenhouse-gas-theory-with-a-boiling-water-pot/ Without the 396 W/m^2 upwelling LWIR there is no net 333 W/m^2 for the GHGs to "trap", "back" radiate or warm anything anywhere. There is no radiative greenhouse effect and the non-existent GHGs do not "warm" the terrestrial surface.
Forget 'net zero'! 'Absolute Zero' for all of humanity's energy needs from nuclear power and hydrogen [even much of the air travel] - and the absolute minimum environmental footprint possible: --------------------//---------------------- Just sent the email below to Dr Finkel. Don't know if I'll get a reply. Going to put in as a comment on the video too [if it lets me]: -----------------------//------------------------- Subject: Dr. Alan Finkel AO | Energy: Australia's national hydrogen strategy Dear Dr Finkel, The subject matter is the title of your recent YouTube 'ceda' presentation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96oqkFkJADc At 2:32 in, you explain that nuclear power is not available in the Australian 'zero-emissions tool kit'. Further in, you describe the scale of hydrogen production envisioned and concentrate on solar power as the simple means of explaining the electricity capacity needed to produce the 30 million tonnes of H2 exports. 900 GW of solar at the typical Australian 25% capacity factor, will give you the 1,980 TWh per year necessary. This would be equivalent to 4091 Bungala-sized Solar Power Projects, with a capital cost of A$1,913 billion, occupying 33,000 km2 with a lifespan of 30 years. In view of the fact that your video presentation appears on the CEDA News YouTube channel [ceda: committee for economic development of australia], would you know if the burgeoning developments in advanced nuclear reactors figure in the Committee's forward planning? For example, do you think they are aware of the COD for GE-Hitachi's 300 MW [Small Modular Reactor] nuclear power plant [npp], the BWRX-300, has recently been pulled forward from 2030 to 2028. This implies that in the early years of the 2030s, this npp will be available at the NOAK capital cost of A$890 million. That's A$890 million for a 300 MW npp, operating at 90% capacity factor, generating 24/7, low-carbon electricity for a 60 year design life. 837 BWRX-300s, maybe grouped onto 100 or so sites, would have a capital cost of A$745 billion. Bearing in mind all of that solar capacity would have to be built a second time to generate for 60 years, the total capital cost of solar power would be A$3,826 million, which is >5X the capital cost of the npp alternative. Developing Australia economically by foisting upon the tax and bill-paying public, a low-carbon energy technology, with >5X the capital cost of advanced npps, takes the money out of their pockets to pay for lifestyle decisions of their own choices, in order to pay a lot more to take a hot shower, boil the kettle, or run the car. At 81 years old, and the UK's No.1 BWRX-300 supporter, I hang on to the hope I will see the breakers thrown on that FOAK. And in the meanwhile, I'll be pushing all I can to promote it in a facebook group page [new members always welcome] and in the blogosphere: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1032713003519847/ https://bwrx-300-nuclear-uk.blogspot.com/ It would be really good to know what you think . Kind regards,
OMG how can this ever be happening? The CCC in full flow with their Government-targeted crap. Please HELP! HELP! Anybody who can, please have a dig at these morons!!!!!!!!!!! Just put this on their facebook link to the announcement: -------------------------------//------------------------------- "...A decade ago we said, “decarbonise electricity generation, then electrify the economy where you can – there is a cost, but it’s worth it”. It turns out we were very right about that strategy; but pleasingly wrong about the cost. The key technologies – wind, solar, batteries – globally have fallen in price, to become cost competitive in some cases with fossil-fuelled systems...........But it is equally true that ten years ago, the CCC were overly optimistic about cost falls in some other technologies – nuclear for example..." These morons at the CCC are manifestly pro-renewables/anti nuclear and under a cloud of dubious integrity with recent revelations about Lord Deben, its Chair. Their weasel-words about the cost competitiveness of renewables can be shown up for what it is by the simplest of arithmetic an 11 year old child could do. And their nasty dig at the cost of nuclear demonstrates a complete ignorance, or the wilfull ignoring, of burgeoning developments in advanced nuclear power reactors. In 15 years time the GE-Hitachi, BWRX-300 Small Modular Reactor [SMR] will be available. It is a uniquely simple and therefore cost effective nuclear power reactor at an overnight cost of $2000/kW, which is a quarter of the cost of Hinkley and competitive to gas. If 100% of the 340 TWh of electricity the UK uses every year were to be supplied by wind and solar, it is likely we would not be prepared to put up with the landscape desecration the Germans accept. So a reasonably 'permutation' might be 10% solar, 30% onshore wind and 60% offshore wind. It will never be truly emissions' free because renewables will forever require fossil-fuelled backup. This would cost £527 billion to cover generation for 60 years - the design life of a nuclear power plant. 340 TWh of 24/7 electricity, requiring no fossil-fuelled backup could be supplied by BWRX-300s for a cost of £65 billion. True zero-emissions electricity for 60 years at 1/8th of the cost. But as significant to Claire Perry should be the ruling in the USA that the Emergency Planning Zone [EPZ] for SMRs can be at the boundary fence of their tiny sites. This is what James Conca recently said: "...the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission just agreed that any emergencies that could possibly occur at a small modular nuclear power plant probably won’t even get past the fence..........No need to come up with huge evacuation plans for nearby cities or anyone living near the plant, like we did for older plants. You can just stand there at the fence and watch what’s going on..." SMRs can be sited near centres of population. The BWRX-300 has a rating of 900 MW thermal and plenty of potential to supply much of the heating and hot water to buildings - 40% of UK energy use - when used as a Combined Heating& Power [CHP] plant. A cost-effective solution to one of the Government's worst energy headaches, with an infrastructure cost nowhere near that of a 100% renewables [electricity only] UK. If there's a God up there, to which most of the politicians, genuinely or otherwise, pay lip service, please put a force field around the Department of BEIS and Parliament, so nothing from the CCC can get through. For the simple cost figures: https://bwrx-300-nuclear-uk.blogspot.com/2019/03/butwhat-about-100-low-carbon.html For the insane comment from Chris Stark about batteries - "...globally have fallen in price..." - just have a look at this: https://bwrx-300-nuclear-uk.blogspot.com/2019/03/just-4-windless-days-in-100-wind-and.html ------------------------------------------//------------------------------------- https://www.theccc.org.uk/2019/03/19/chris-stark-towards-net-zero/
Commented on the article. but don't know if it will stick. This is what I said: --------------------------------------//------------------------------------- By the mid-2020s, investment in renewables is going to start to look a bit crackers. In 2024, the first NuScale 720 MW npp [nuclear power plant] will be operational in the USA at an overnight cost rate of $4,200/kW; that works out at £2,360 million. NuScale in the UK anticipate deployment in the here in the 2020s too. Each npp will generate 359.5 million MWh of dividend paying units of electricity. 950 MW MEOW [Moray East Offshore Windfarm] is costing £1,800 million. It will generate 78.4 million MWh of dividend paying units of electricity. Investing 31% more in a npp and getting 4.58X more in earnings than is possible from an investment in offshore wind, seems a pretty good bet to me. And then the problems for investment in renewables starts to rocket upwards in the 2030s. GE-Hitachi will commence operation of their FOAK BWRX-300 SMR at $3,200/kW. Each 300 MW npp would have an overnight cost of £749 million and generate 149.8 million MWh of dividend paying units of electricity. Investing 2.4X more capital in offshore wind and earning 1.9X less than investing in a npp would be most definitely crazy. Then within a few years - maybe 5 years - the overnight cost of the NOAK BWRX-300 is targeted at $2,000/kW to be competitive with gas. The overnight cost in the UK would be down to £468 million. Investing 3.8X more capital in offshore wind and earning 1.9X less than investing in a npp would clearly be insane. Governments, NGOs and academics hoping and dreaming of a 100% renewables future must be unaware of - or wilfully ignoring - burgeoning developments in, and investment and political support for, advanced nuclear reactors. A 100% affordable, decarbonised, nuclear-future is, literally, just around the corner. -----------------------------//-----------------------------