IRIS Earthquake Science

IRIS Earthquake Science IRIS is a consortium dedicated to the operation of facilities for the acquisition, management, and distribution of seismological data. IRIS programs contribute to scholarly research, education, earthquake hazard mitigation, and verification of the CNTBT.
(91)

The mission of the IRIS Consortium (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology), its members, and affiliates is to: - Facilitate investigations of seismic sources and Earth properties using seismic and other geophysical methods. - Promote exchange of seismic and other geophysical data and knowledge through the use of standards for network operations and data formats, and through pursuing policies of free and unrestricted data access. - Foster cooperation among IRIS members, affiliates, and other organizations in order to advance seismological research and education, expand the diversity of the geoscience workforce, and improve Earth science literacy in the general public. COMMENT POLICY We welcome and encourage your comments and questions and hope that all conversations here will be polite and productive. We reserve the ability to delete any of the following: - violent, obscene, profane, abusive, hateful, or racist comments - comments that threaten or harm - comments that suggest or encourage illegal activity - comments that endorse or aim to spread misinformation - comments that include personal information including, but not limited to, email addresses, telephone numbers, mailing addresses, or identification numbers Comments that don't follow these rules will be deleted and the commenter may be permanently banned from the page.

Operating as usual

Have a safe weekend!
01/30/2021

Have a safe weekend!

"By analyzing sediments jostled by ground shaking, researchers have shown that two impact craters near Stuttgart were cr...
01/29/2021
An Asteroid “Double Disaster” Struck Germany in the Miocene - Eos

"By analyzing sediments jostled by ground shaking, researchers have shown that two impact craters near Stuttgart were created by independent asteroid impacts rather than a binary asteroid strike."

https://eos.org/articles/an-asteroid-double-disaster-struck-germany-in-the-miocene

By analyzing sediments jostled by ground shaking, researchers have shown that two impact craters near Stuttgart were created by independent asteroid impacts rather than a binary asteroid strike.

"To study how Gondwana became Pangaea, the researchers mapped the continental plates over time, based on fossils and oth...
01/29/2021
What might Earth’s next supercontinent look like? New study provides clues

"To study how Gondwana became Pangaea, the researchers mapped the continental plates over time, based on fossils and other deep-time records. And they explored how the position of these continents related to models of mantle flow—and the expected location of ancient upwellings and downwellings."

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/01/what-might-earth-s-next-supercontinent-look-new-study-provides-clues

Researchers say giant landmasses form at regular intervals in predictable locations

“Every handful of sand is radioactive,” said Tammy Rittenour, a professor of paleoclimatology and Quaternary geology at ...
01/29/2021
Drought, Not War, Felled Some Ancient Asian Civilizations - Eos

“Every handful of sand is radioactive,” said Tammy Rittenour, a professor of paleoclimatology and Quaternary geology at Utah State University whose lab specializes in the OSL technique but who was not involved in this study. When the sand is exposed to the Sun, its luminescence signal is known and effectively “zeroed.” And when the sand is buried—because, say, the canal that was carrying the sand was no longer flowing—it is exposed to the latent radioactivity of the surrounding sediments.

“There’s basically a proportionality between radiation exposure and luminescence,” and with knowledge of the rate of radiation exposure, it is possible to calculate when the sand was buried, said Rittenour."

https://eos.org/articles/drought-not-war-felled-some-ancient-asian-civilizations

Radiocarbon dating, luminescent sand grains, and climate records point to drought as the reason for the civilizations’ demise.

Regional compression produces broadly distributed earthquakes north of the Himalayan plate boundary. However, the histor...
01/28/2021
Tectonics & Earthquakes of the Himalaya- Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology

Regional compression produces broadly distributed earthquakes north of the Himalayan plate boundary. However, the historical earthquake record indicates that the largest occur on the shallow portion of the megathrust boundary. This animation discusses regional processes and focusses on the 2015 Nepal earthquake.

https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/tectonics__earthquakes_of_the_himalaya

Regional compression produces broadly distributed earthquakes north of the Himalayan plate boundary. However, the historical earthquake record indicates that the largest occur on the shallow portion of the megathrust boundary. This animation discusses regional processes and focusses on the 2015 Ne...

"Massive earthquakes are rare events—and the scarcity of information about them can blind us to their risks, especially ...
01/28/2021
Supercomputers Simulate 800,000 Years of California Earthquakes to Pinpoint Risks

"Massive earthquakes are rare events—and the scarcity of information about them can blind us to their risks, especially when it comes to determining the danger to a specific location or structure.

Scientists are now working to improve the calculations of danger by combining maps and histories of known faults with the use of supercomputers to simulate potential shaking deep into the future in California."

https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2021/01/25/supercomputers-simulate-800000-years-california-earthquakes-pinpoint-risks/#.YA757hKTlO8.twitter

Scientists are working to improve their calculations of earthquake danger by combining maps of known faults with the use of supercomputers to simulate potential shaking deep into the future in California.

01/28/2021

GPS is not only useful for navigation and telling us where we are but GPS signals that bounce off the ground first can tell us about Earth's surface. Watch this animation to see how vegetation and snow affect GPS data. From @UNAVCO https://youtu.be/jCC3p_Qi-0I

ADVENTURES IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH DURING COVID-19 LOCKDOWNShttps://raspberryshake.org/lessons-from-covid-19-lockdown-w...
01/27/2021
Lessons from COVID-19 Lockdowns with Raspberry Shakes

ADVENTURES IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH DURING COVID-19 LOCKDOWNS

https://raspberryshake.org/lessons-from-covid-19-lockdown-with-raspberry-shakes/

LESSONS FROM COVID-19 LOCKDOWNS WITH RASPBERRY SHAKES January 18, 2021 - Written by Alan Kafka, Weston Observatory, Boston College Alan Kafka’s research and teaching interests span the intersection of geophysics, earthquake science, environmental systems, and citizen science for the public

01/27/2021

Ghost forests are part of the evidence that a Great earthquake and devastating tsunami occurred last on January 26th, 1700 in the Pacific Northwest. How do we know this?

https://youtu.be/4xPbt8iiDRo

321 years ago a Great earthquake and devastating tsunami occurred in the Pacific Northwest. How do we know this?https://...
01/26/2021
Ghost Forests of the Pacific Northwest (evidence for Giant earthquake & tsunami)- Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology

321 years ago a Great earthquake and devastating tsunami occurred in the Pacific Northwest. How do we know this?

https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/ghost_forests_of_the_pacific_northwest_evidence_for_giant_earthquake__tsunami

Ghost forests are part of the evidence that a Great earthquake and devastating tsunami occurred last on January 26th, 1700 in the Pacific Northwest. How do we know this?

"The relationships between the main recorded events and crustal structures have proved to be difficult to unravel in thi...
01/26/2021
Strong quake rattles San Juan - Temblor.net

"The relationships between the main recorded events and crustal structures have proved to be difficult to unravel in this region. Two historic events have produced surface ruptures in the area. The 1944 magnitude-7.0 earthquake and the 1977 magnitude-7.4 earthquake, both occurring in areas of compression generated sub metric fault scarps..."

https://temblor.net/earthquake-insights/strong-quake-rattles-san-juan-12377/

A magnitude-6.4 earthquake struck near San Juan, Argentina, this week, just days after the city commemorated a destructive earthquake three quarters of a century earlier.

The epicenter is the map location on Earth’s surface, above where earthquake began. An earthquake actually begins inside...
01/25/2021
2-minute takes on misunderstandings in Earth Science (GROUP)- Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology

The epicenter is the map location on Earth’s surface, above where earthquake began. An earthquake actually begins inside the earth at the hypocenter. Learn more!

https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/2minute_takes_on_misunderstandings_in_earth_science_group

Earth science is not simple. It frequently deals with difficult concepts, abstractions, mathematical laws, and theory. With this series of animations under 2 minutes, we hope to address common misunderstandings, misconceptions and myths.

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC PAPER - Diffuse Tectonic Deformation in the Drum Mountains Fault Zone, Utah, USA: Testing the Uti...
01/25/2021

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC PAPER - Diffuse Tectonic Deformation in the Drum Mountains Fault Zone, Utah, USA: Testing the Utility of Legacy Aerial Photograph-Derived Topography

"The Basin and Range province in the western United States hosts numerous low-slip-rate normal faults with diffuse and subtle surface expressions. Legacy aerial photographs, widely available across the region, can be used to generate high-resolution digital elevation models of these previously uncharacterized fault systems. Here, we test the limits and utility of aerial photograph-derived elevation products on the Drum Mountains fault zone—a virtually unstudied and enigmatic fault system in the eastern Basin and Range province of central Utah. We evaluate a new 2-m digital surface model produced from aerial photographs against other remotely sensed and field survey data and assess the various factors that contribute to noise, artifacts, and distortions."

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2020.600729/full

"When a lightning bolt strikes a mountaintop, it can melt rocks in a flash, leaving a narrow glassy scar called a fulgur...
01/24/2021
Fossilized lightning bolts reveal when ancient storms struck

"When a lightning bolt strikes a mountaintop, it can melt rocks in a flash, leaving a narrow glassy scar called a fulgurite. Now, researchers have shown that these fossilized thunderbolts are geological clocks that record the passage of time. The technique offers geologists a way to date thunderstorms from tens of thousands of years ago, and could give them a window into ancient climate patterns."

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/12/fossilized-lightning-bolts-reveal-when-ancient-storms-struck

New geological dating system could show when glaciers retreated

Today’s Earth system challenges are far more complex and urgent than those that existed in 1879 when the USGS was establ...
01/24/2021

Today’s Earth system challenges are far more complex and urgent than those that existed in 1879 when the USGS was established.

Here is their new Science Strategy for 2020-2030.

http://ow.ly/s4wE50DeqRL

Have a safe weekend! (Comic: Calvin and Hobbs)
01/23/2021

Have a safe weekend! (Comic: Calvin and Hobbs)

"Planet Earth pulled out all the stops, it seems, to enable the first humans to reach North America. When a glacial peri...
01/22/2021
Overturning in the Pacific May Have Enabled a “Standstill” in Beringia - Eos

"Planet Earth pulled out all the stops, it seems, to enable the first humans to reach North America. When a glacial period lowered sea levels and turned parts of the Bering Strait into a land bridge, a warm ocean current shielded that region from the worst cold, turning it into a refuge where ancestors of the first Americans found shelter for thousands of years.

Evidence of that current, which doesn’t exist today, was published recently in Science Advances."

https://eos.org/articles/overturning-in-the-pacific-may-have-enabled-a-standstill-in-beringia

During the last glacial period, a vanished ocean current may have made the land bridge between Asia and the Americas into a place where humans could wait out the ice.

01/21/2021
Tiny ground motions from M7.0 earthquakes in the Philippines measured in North America

Watch the waves from the M7.0 earthquake SE of Pondaguitan, Philippines roll across seismic stations in North America.

This animation, called a Ground Motion Visualization (GMV), shows the motion of the ground as detected on seismometers across North America - each dot is a seismic station and when the ground moves up it turns red and when it moves down it turns blue.

Waves generated by an earthquake travel around and through the earth, but they get smaller (attenuate) as they move away from the earthquake location, just like ripples in a pond. Once the earthquake waves are far enough away from the location where the earthquake occurred they can no longer be felt by people, BUT they can still be detected by sensitive seismic instruments. That's what this animation is showing - the waves from the M7.0 earthquake traveling both through the earth and across earth's surface - in the continental US the earthquake the waves are much too small to feel but not too small to measure. The scale is along the bottom. It is in micrometers (microns). For reference, the diameter of a human hair is ~50-75 microns.

The green triangle is the station recording the seismogram shown along the bottom. The red line is the "great circle path" between the reference seismometer (green triangle) and the earthquake location.

*Some of the instruments look like they are experiencing shaking before the seismic waves arrive. This is due to the setting of the animation and the calibration of the seismic instrument.

**The video is not reflecting the actual speed of the waves; it has been sped up. The time is shown along the bottom.

***If you look carefully you will see that there are Canadian stations used in this animation, primarily along the western coast and adjacent to Alaska. Not every seismic instrument in the US, Canada or Mexico can be used in this type of animation.

This particular GMV is generated using the vertical component of our Ground Motion Visualization (GMV). To produce a better coverage, the video is based on all available stations from any FDSN data center, using the fedcatalog service (http://service.iris.edu/irisws/fedcatalog/1/). The video uses the available BHZ, LHZ, or HHZ channel to produce the video, therefore provides a better coverage.

To see more GMV's visits http://ds.iris.edu/spud/gmv/17971022
See Less

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC PAPER - Highly explosive basaltic eruptions driven by CO2 exsolution"The most explosive basaltic ...
01/21/2021
Highly explosive basaltic eruptions driven by CO2 exsolution

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC PAPER - Highly explosive basaltic eruptions driven by CO2 exsolution

"The most explosive basaltic scoria cone eruption yet documented (>20 km high plumes) occurred at Sunset Crater (Arizona) ca. 1085 AD by undetermined eruptive mechanisms. We present melt inclusion analysis, including bubble contents by Raman spectroscopy, yielding high total CO2 (approaching 6000 ppm) and S (~2000 ppm) with moderate H2O (~1.25 wt%). Two groups of melt inclusions are evident, classified by bubble vol%. Modeling of post-entrapment modification indicates that the group with larger bubbles formed as a result of heterogeneous entrapment of melt and exsolved CO2 and provides evidence for an exsolved CO2 phase at magma storage depths of ~15 km. We argue that this exsolved CO2 phase played a critical role in driving this explosive eruption, possibly analogous to H2O exsolution driving silicic caldera-forming eruptions. Because of their distinct gas compositions relative to silicic magmas (high S and CO2), even modest volume explosive basaltic eruptions could impact the atmosphere."

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20354-2

Mechanisms that drive highly explosive eruptions of low-viscosity magmas, such as at Sunset Crater volcano, remain uncertain. Here, the authors present evidence for an exsolved CO2 phase ~15 km beneath Sunset Crater that was the critical driver of rapid magma ascent leading to the explosive eruption...

01/21/2021

IRIS is a consortium of over 100 US universities dedicated to the operation of science facilities for the acquisition, management, and distribution of seismological data. IRIS programs contribute to scholarly research, education, earthquake hazard mitigation, and verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

https://www.iris.edu/hq/about_iris#vision

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC PAPER - Apparent earthquake rupture predictability"To what extent can the future evolution of an ...
01/20/2021

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC PAPER - Apparent earthquake rupture predictability

"To what extent can the future evolution of an ongoing earthquake rupture be predicted? This question of fundamental scientific and practical importance has recently been addressed by studies of teleseismic source time functions (STFs) but reaching contrasting conclusions. One study concludes that the initial portion of STFs is the same regardless of magnitude. Another study concludes that the rate at which earthquakes grow increases systematically and strongly with final event magnitudes. Here we show that the latter reported trend is caused by a selection bias towards events with unusually long durations, and by estimates of STF growth made when the STF is already decaying. If these invalid estimates are left out, the trend is no longer present, except during the first few seconds of the smallest events in the dataset, Mw5–6.5, for which the reliability of the STF amplitudes is questionable. Simple synthetic tests show that the observations are consistent with statistically indistinguishable growth of smaller and larger earthquakes. A much weaker trend is apparent among events of comparable duration, but we argue that its significance is not resolvable by the current data. Finally, we propose a nomenclature to facilitate further discussions of earthquake rupture predictability and determinism."

https://academic.oup.com/gji/advance-article/doi/10.1093/gji/ggaa610/6054996

Overview talk - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcdUvyhdY6E&feature=youtu.be

"Yellowstone hosts thousands of thermal features which have diverse chemistries and origins. The most iconic features, l...
01/19/2021

"Yellowstone hosts thousands of thermal features which have diverse chemistries and origins. The most iconic features, like Old Faithful, are alkaline, and have a slightly neutral pH. Some Yellowstone features, however, can be acidic enough to break down the very rock that hosts them!"

https://www.usgs.gov/center-news/where-do-acid-sulfate-hot-springs-come-and-why-are-they-important?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_term=80cabe06-625c-4f96-bc59-31ae791e09c4&utm_content=&utm_campaign=usgsvolcanoes&qt-news_science_products=4#qt-news_science_products

Address

1200 New York Ave NW
Washington D.C., DC
20005

General information

Founded in 1984 with support from the National Science Foundation, IRIS is a consortium of over 100 US universities dedicated to the operation of science facilities for the acquisition, management, and distribution of seismological data. IRIS programs contribute to scholarly research, education, earthquake hazard mitigation, and verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. ----------------------------------------- COMMENT POLICY IRIS welcomes and encourages your comments and questions and hopes that all conversations here will be polite and productive. We reserve the ability to delete any of the following: - violent, obscene, profane, abusive, hateful, or racist comments - comments that threaten or harm - comments that suggest or encourage illegal activity - comments that endorse or aim to spread misinformation - comments that include personal information including, but not limited to, email addresses, telephone numbers, mailing addresses, or identification numbers Comments that don't follow these rules will be deleted and the commenter may be permanently banned from the page.

Alerts

Be the first to know and let us send you an email when IRIS Earthquake Science posts news and promotions. Your email address will not be used for any other purpose, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

Videos

Our Story

The mission of the IRIS Consortium (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology), its members, and affiliates is to: - Facilitate investigations of seismic sources and Earth properties using seismic and other geophysical methods. - Promote exchange of seismic and other geophysical data and knowledge through the use of standards for network operations and data formats, and through pursuing policies of free and unrestricted data access. - Foster cooperation among IRIS members, affiliates, and other organizations in order to advance seismological research and education, expand the diversity of the geoscience workforce, and improve Earth science literacy in the general public.

IRIS is funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Nearby government services


Comments

I'm wondering how safe my building is in an earthquake. It's a building in Nanaimo, BC, Canada. It's in one of the most seismically active areas in the world, or it should be. We haven't had a major earthquake since 1946. My building is a concrete and brick building, pretty sure it's reinforced and was built in 1965-1970. Its 4 stories high and it's on "sand" for soil. I'm also wondering how the occupants on the first floor will fare in an earthquake? I hear that the first floors often pancake in an earthquake? What are the odds of me dying in an earthquake living in this building in this region? Any information would be much appreciated. What is the likelihood the building will be left intact? Do any concrete buildings survive major earthquakes? Thanks a lot!!
Join us tomorrow at #gsa2020!!!
What is the relationship between volcanoes and earthquake?
Earth System Structure ,Earth System Dynamics https://ssrn.com/abstract=3639915 https://ssrn.com/abstract=3640056
CALL FOR ABSTRACTS I hope that this message finds you in good health. I am writing to call your attention to a session that we are going to be co-chairing in the upcoming Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America on October 26-30, 2020. Our session titled: “T90. The 2019–2020 Southwestern Puerto Rico Earthquake Sequence and the Intersection between Geoscience Research, Education, and Communication” will be focusing in the developments of the current seismic sequence in southern Puerto Rico continues. This interdisciplinary session is welcoming contributions on research, informal education, and science communication research related to the earthquake events. This year, GSA’s Annual Meeting will be taking place online (https://community.geosociety.org/gsa2020/home). The deadline to submit your abstract is August 4th at 11:59PM (PT) (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2020AM/top/index.epl) Please, see below for more information about the session. We hope to see you virtually to discuss this topic! Rationale: Southwestern Puerto Rico has been recently affected by an earthquake sequence that began on December 28, 2019 and to this writing has not ended. So far, more than 2,000 earthquakes have affected Puerto Rico, of which 32 earthquakes have had magnitudes greater than 4.5. The main shock of 6.4 magnitude occurred on January 7 and has been the most destructive earthquake to hit Puerto Rico in 100 years. The earthquake sequence have caused so far 2 fatalities and severe damage to the infrastructure including hundreds of collapsed houses, bridges, and schools. The aftermath of the seismic event has caused at least 6,000 people to now live as refugees. We observe the occurrence of landslides and liquefaction along the coast, a reported increase in hydrothermal temperatures about 40 km away from the epicenters, and average of 14 cm of ground shifting change downward and slightly to the west. Information about these events was disseminated over news and social media, which included misinformation, myths, and misconceptions. However, many scientists took this opportunity to provide formal and informal education to explain the science of the earthquake sequence. This interdisciplinary session aims to bring geoscientists together to present the latest research on the earthquake sequence. Furthermore, we seek to share and discuss the latest contributions from all groups on seismological, geological, geophysical, remote sensing, and numerical modeling studies as well as research on informal education and science communication during the hazard events. We are confident that this session will be of interest to a wide diversity of disciplines and groups because of its topical and interdisciplinary nature.
IRIS
Brainstorming ideas for a new hands-on seismology activity. It has to teach a basic STEM discipline concept, be logistically feasible for a very large event with large crowds *and* capture the intrigue of both kids and adults. Ideas??? I love these challenges.
Greetings Tectonics and Seismic Hazard Enthusiast, We would like to draw your attention to the Theme Session (T26) entitled “Deciphering Active Tectonics and Seismic Hazard in Eastern North America” at the 2020 NE/SE Joint Section Meeting in Reston, Virginia, March 20-22 (https://www.geosociety.org/GSA/Events/Section_Meetings/GSA/Sections/se/2020mtg/home.aspx). The processes leading to intraplate earthquakes and zones of historical seismicity in eastern North America are poorly understood because earthquake rates are relatively low, surface expression can be subtle to non-existent, and active faults can be hidden beneath the surface or episodic in behavior. Yet the region has major population centers in moderate to high seismic hazard regions with infrastructure that was not built to withstand significant earthquakes. Events such as the 2011 Virginia earthquake, data from EarthScope and GeoPRISMS, paleoseismic studies, and modeling may provide evidence for neotectonic earthquakes and their driving mechanisms in relation to crustal structure. New results from EarthScope Flexible Array experiments in the region are revealing the presence of large velocity anomalies in the upper mantle that may be linked to earthquake occurrence. This session will bring together researchers with interests in understanding seismic hazard in eastern North America, including studies of Quaternary tectonics, lithospheric structure, seismic hazard analysis, and site response. We welcome contributions in any geoscience discipline, including but not limited to seismology, structural geology and tectonics, geomorphology, geodynamics, paleoseismology, geochronology, geophysical imaging, and numerical modeling, that contribute new evidence for earthquakes, refine or improve existing earthquake histories, evaluate the potential for reactivation of ancient faults, provide new models explaining earthquake causal mechanisms, or refine or improve our understanding of earthquake hazard. Abstract submission deadline is December 10, 2019. Abstracts can be submitted at https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2020SE/cfp.cgi. Please see the flyer for this event here and do not hesitate to contact one of us if you have any questions. Also, please pass this invitation on to others who might be interested in submitting an abstract. All the Best, Lisa, Wright, Chris, and Chris
Earthquake Forecasting will be a thing one day, much like weather forecasting. I sat for 12 years with a back injury and studied Cascadia. There are 'tells', very much like poker players have.
This is a peer support group. A place for anyone worldwide suffering emotionally after any natural disasters or those supporting others going through it. Earthquakes, Hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, fires, tsunamis etc. A place where you can express your anxiety or fear of future events. Talk about losses you have experienced or grieve loved ones lost to disasters. Talk to others while you lay awake at night. Connect with others having a hard time getting through the days without criticism or negative comments from those who have been able to move on. Please feel free to share tips and ideas on how to reduce anxiety and get through the anxiety and other emotions. Counselors or other professionals are welcome to join and offer support. https://www.facebook.com/groups/NaturalDisasterSupport/?ref=share
Plot real time Mars Quake data, when IRIS Earthquake Science ?