Modoc Nation

Modoc Nation Federally Recognized Tribe originally from Northern California & Southern Oregon. Only tribe exiled to Oklahoma from the West, and as prisoners of war.

The Modoc Tribe is a federally recognized Indian Tribe; organized under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936. The Modoc Tribe has a constitution and bylaws, approved by the United States Secretary of the Interior. The native Modoc homelands are in the Pacific Northwest, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra-Nevada Mountains along the present-day California and Oregon borders. As a result of the Modoc War in 1872-1873, the Modoc people who fought for their homelands were forcibly removed, as prisoners of war, to the Quapaw Agency located in the northeast region of Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. The Modoc Tribe is the only tribe to be exiled to Oklahoma from the western United States. The United States policies of Manifest Destiny and the transcontinental railroad, along with the discovery of gold in the mountains of California, better known as the California Gold Rush, led to the mass immigration of thousands settlers and prospectors into the Modoc lands. As a result of this mass intrusion, tensions arose between Modoc people and those who entered into their homelands. Stories, mostly of myth, were told among the intruding settlers and prospectors about the Modoc people being “ruthless” and “murderous” in killing innocent people who entered into their lands. These false stories were often used as statistics and political tools for encouraging violence and the removal of the Modoc people from their native homelands, including State policies being passed and financially supported to kill natives, including the Modoc people. In 1852 on a November day, a man by the name of Ben Wright who was a self-proclaimed “Indian killer” from Indiana, came out to Modoc country in search of gold. Wright decided that he had heard enough of these “murderous Modocs”. Wright gathered up a group of miners and negotiated a deal with the California government to be paid for every Modoc that his posse could kill. Wright and his posse set up camp near a Modoc village and rode in amongst the Modoc people there under a white flag of peace. Upon entering the village, Wright and his men opened fire on the unarmed Modoc people, shooting and killing all the men, women, and children that the posse could find. Less than five Modoc people from this Modoc village survived the unjustified slaughtering that became known as the Ben Wright Massacre. The settlers praised Ben Wright and called him a “hero” while the Modoc people mourned the loss of the innocent mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters, sons and daughters. Treaty of 1864 (October 1864) The region of the Lost River became a destination for settlers and non-Indian people who wanted to enter into the region and become landowners. The Modoc people who had lived and occupied this region for thousands of years had now become an obstacle for the U.S. government. The federal policy for most of the United States history was the concept of a “Treaty” between the U.S. government and a tribe, where the tribes would agree to give up their expansive claims to all of their aboriginal lands in exchange for a tract of land called a “reservation.” Tribes were assured that these reservations would remain as Indian lands “forever” and the United States would protect their boundaries from incursions by non-Indians. The United States government considered the Modoc lands to be a prime area for settlers and thus decided in 1864 to get the Modoc leaders to enter into a Treaty and place the Modoc people on a reservation, along with two other tribes, the Klamath and the Yahooskin band of Snake Indians. The reservation would be known as the Klamath Reservation. The government also promised in this treaty to provide supplies and money for goods, and build shops and mills for logging, along with schools for the Modoc children. During this time, the Civil War was still being waged between the Union and the Confederacy. As a result, the Treaty of 1864 was not ratified or honored by the United States when entered into, but the government still expected the Modoc people to honor their terms by giving up their lands and moving onto the Klamath Reservation. The Modoc people would honor the Treaty under the assumption that the United States would do the same, and the Modoc moved to the Klamath Reservation. Life on the reservation was difficult and short-lived for the Modoc people as they were constantly harassed and taunted by settlers, soldiers, and the Klamath. The promised food and supplies were often not brought to the Modoc, or if they were, they were later taken back or stolen by the Klamath. Within months, these disparaging events led a Modoc leader named Kientpoos, or Captain Jack as the United States came to know him, to call a meeting amongst his people. Together the Modoc people decided that they would leave the Klamath Reservation and go back to their homelands in the Lost River and Tule Lake region. Upon learning that Modoc people had returned to their homelands, the settlers who had entered into the lands began to complain to government agents and the military that they feared the Modoc people, and that the Modoc should be removed for their safety. The Modoc War (November 1872 – June 1873) The Treaty of 1864 was finally ratified by the United States in 1870. By this time, Captain Jack and his Modoc people had returned to their homelands and had been living there as they did before. The settlers continued to protest against them. Some of the Modoc people traveled back to the Klamath Reservation under new terms and on a new location. Captain Jack visited the location and found it unsuitable in comparison to his homelands. Captain Jack attempted to negotiate a new Treaty and reservation with government officials within his homeland region for the Modocs, but the government at the time decided that it would no longer enter into Treaties with Indian tribes. The Modoc people continuing to live in their homelands, in defiance of the Treaty of 1864, led the United States government to issue orders for their removal and placement back on the Klamath Reservation. However Captain Jack’s band of about 170 Modoc decided to remain on their homelands. By November of 1872, orders came from the Commissioner on Indian Affairs, F.A. Walker, in Washington, D.C. to remove Captain Jack’s band of Modocs “peacefully if possible, but forcible if you must.” With orders in hand, the U.S. Army rode to the Lost River region where Captain Jack and his people were living. The Army demanded that the Modoc people “give up their guns” and that they were under arrest for violating the Treaty. A Modoc man by the name of Scarfaced Charley refused to give up his gun. An Army lieutenant drew his gun on Scarefaced Charley, and demanded that he give up his gun, and then fired. The lieutenant missed, and Scarfaced Charley returned fire, as did many others on opposing sides. This was known as the Battle of Lost River that ignited the Modoc War. The Modoc people retreated to an ancient lava bed field, a natural fortress that extended over 46,000 acres. It was there at the lava beds that the Modoc people of Captain Jack’s band fought over 1,000 United States soldiers from November of 1872 until June of 1873; and the Modoc who were outnumbered nearly 20 to 1, won many of the battles fought. The Peace Commission of April 11, 1873 During the Modoc War¸ a party of government officials that included Army General E.R.S. Canby, Indian Agent Alfred Meachem, and a few others attempted to negotiate a truce between the military and the Modoc and return the Modoc to the Klamath Reservation. Again, Captain Jack requested his own reservation within his homeland region, and again he was denied the request. Hearing that the government would not agree to provide the Modoc people with the requested reservation within their homelands, Captain Jack and the other Modoc men in attendance at the negotiations opened fire on the government officials. Army General E.R.S. Canby was shot and killed; becoming the first and only United States Military General to be killed in an Indian war. End of the Modoc War After the killing of General Canby, General William Tecumseh Sherman who was the commanding General of the Army and a veteran of the Civil War, called for the “Extermination of the Modoc people.” Soldiers and volunteers came far and wide to defeat the Modocs. A military surge to defeat the Modocs pushed them out of their stronghold and the Army was able cutoff their water supply. It was only a matter of time before the Modoc people who fought for their homelands would surrender to the United States military, but he military would have to catch the Modoc first. The Modoc War and the Modoc people who fought in it became world famous, bringing newspaper reporters from as far away as Paris, France. The estimated cost of the United States in fighting the Modoc War was estimated to be at the lowest estimate a half-million dollars; in comparison to the reservation that Captain Jack had attempted to negotiate that would have only cost, at most, $10,000.00.

Operating as usual

Modoc Healing House
01/13/2021

Modoc Healing House

Research shows that people experience many physiological benefits while interacting with horses, including lowered blood pressure and heart rate, and increased levels of beta-endorphins.

At Healing House we encourage connections with the family, the community, animals, and nature. Find out more at https://modochealinghouse.com/horses-of-hope-oklahoma/

Please send resume and cover letter to Meekin Houser Hulvey, Finance Director at meekin.houser@modoctribe.com
01/12/2021

Please send resume and cover letter to Meekin Houser Hulvey, Finance Director at [email protected]

Wak lis i nanokens. This month's culture club meeting has been postponed to January 14, 2021 at 6pm.
01/07/2021

Wak lis i nanokens. This month's culture club meeting has been postponed to January 14, 2021 at 6pm.

01/06/2021
For application and information please visit https://modocnation.com/housing-authority/ Funding is limited to a very sma...
01/05/2021

For application and information please visit https://modocnation.com/housing-authority/
Funding is limited to a very small amount of Members we can assist. It will be first come first serve to those who submit their application with all the required documents. Applications will be processed by date they are received not the date of application.

COVID vaccines will focus on high risk groups and patients age 65 and up. For more information contact the Northeastern ...
01/05/2021

COVID vaccines will focus on high risk groups and patients age 65 and up. For more information contact the Northeastern Tribal Health System at 918-542-1655. Appointments are required: 918-332-4478

Attention Modoc Nation students: Winter Term/Spring Semester scholarship applications are due by January 25, 2021.
01/04/2021

Attention Modoc Nation students: Winter Term/Spring Semester scholarship applications are due by January 25, 2021.

Happy 2021!
01/01/2021

Happy 2021!

12/25/2020
Haaland, 60, is a member of the Laguna Pueblo and, as she likes to say, a 35th-generation resident of New Mexico. The ro...
12/23/2020
Rep. Deb Haaland Picked as First Native American Interior Secretary

Haaland, 60, is a member of the Laguna Pueblo and, as she likes to say, a 35th-generation resident of New Mexico. The role of interior secretary would put her in charge of an agency that has tremendous sway not only over the nearly 600 federally recognized tribes, but also over much of the nation’s vast public lands, waterways, wildlife, national parks and mineral wealth.

If confirmed, Haaland would be the first Native American to lead the powerful federal agency that has wielded influence over the nation's tribes for generations

Will Rogers Middle School, Miami, OK
12/09/2020

Will Rogers Middle School, Miami, OK

Will Rogers Middle School and MPS Would like to send out a HUGE shout out to the Modoc Tribe for the donation of over 3000 gallons of hand sanitizer. This is a great example of community togetherness. Thank you for your support to our schools!!

Position:  Accounting Specialist (full-time) located at Modoc Nation Administrative BuildingJob Overview:   Assist in ma...
12/08/2020

Position: Accounting Specialist (full-time) located at Modoc Nation Administrative Building

Job Overview: Assist in managing all forms of financial accounts within the Tribe. Keep accurate records of accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory, property, payroll, and employee benefits. Ensure compliance with internal accounting procedures.

Qualifications: Ability to maintain precise records, Experience with Quick Books & Excel, Associates or higher degree preferred with emphasis in business or accounting. Years of experience can be substituted for degree. Experience with federal/state grants a plus.

Salary: Commensurate with Experience/Education. Generous employee benefits.

Submissions: Please send resume and cover letter to Meekin Houser Hulvey, Finance Director at [email protected]

Congratulations to Arissa Tyner-Davis who was crowned Miss Merry Christmas for Quapaw on December 2nd. She is a senior, ...
12/07/2020

Congratulations to Arissa Tyner-Davis who was crowned Miss Merry Christmas for Quapaw on December 2nd. She is a senior, a member of the Modoc and Quapaw Nations, and was an intern at the Modoc library for the past two summers. And just like her dad Wes Davis, we're a little proud of her! 😍

12/01/2020
Join us for our next Cultural Club meeting this Thursday, December 3rd at 6pm via Zoom (link is below):https://zoom.us/j...
11/30/2020

Join us for our next Cultural Club meeting this Thursday, December 3rd at 6pm via Zoom (link is below):

https://zoom.us/j/95980233272

Meeting ID: 959 8023 3272
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Most think of today as Black Friday, but in 2009, Congress passed and the President signed legislation that established ...
11/27/2020

Most think of today as Black Friday, but in 2009, Congress passed and the President signed legislation that established the Friday following Thanksgiving Day of each year as “Native American Heritage Day.” This has not been without controversy, with some Native Americans citing "poor taste" in it's association with Black Friday and following a holiday that some would say ignores the horrific treatment of Natives by European settlers. However, the designation was intended to encourage Americans of all backgrounds to observe this date through appropriate ceremonies and activities. It was also meant to encourage public schools to enhance student understanding of Native Americans by providing classroom instruction focusing on their history, achievements, and contributions.

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Wishing everyone a safe and happy Thanksgiving!
11/26/2020

Wishing everyone a safe and happy Thanksgiving!

The National Museum of the American Indian is offering a free, online Native Cinema Showcase, Nov. 18-27. The films will...
11/16/2020
Native Cinema Showcase

The National Museum of the American Indian is offering a free, online Native Cinema Showcase, Nov. 18-27. The films will be available to view on-demand, without required registration, except as noted in the schedule.

The National Native American Veterans Memorial is now open on the National Mall in Washington D.C. after twenty-five yea...
11/12/2020
New Memorial Recognizes Generations Of Military Service By Native American Veterans

The National Native American Veterans Memorial is now open on the National Mall in Washington D.C. after twenty-five years in the making.
https://www.npr.org/2020/11/11/933473533/new-memorial-recognizes-generations-of-military-service-by-native-american-veter

The newest monument on the National Mall, which opens on Veterans Day, will provide a quiet shrine for Native vets to visit. Native Americans have traditionally served in high numbers.

11/11/2020

Today and every day, we thank our veterans for their service and sacrifice. 🇺🇸

11/10/2020
❤️ How cute are these kids?
11/09/2020

❤️ How cute are these kids?

We love our community!! The Club’s van tires were popped a couple weeks ago in the middle of the night. We use this van daily to transport our virtual students to school to see their teachers.

Thank you to Modoc Nation and The Healing House for stepping up to donate some new tires!

We “wheely” appreciate you! 🚌

Check out this very cool trailer from Marvel featuring Indigenous stories told by Indigenous artists!MARVEL CELEBRATES I...
11/06/2020
MARVEL'S VOICES: INDIGENOUS VOICES #1 Trailer | Marvel Comics

Check out this very cool trailer from Marvel featuring Indigenous stories told by Indigenous artists!

MARVEL CELEBRATES INDIGENOUS HISTORY IN A STAR-STUDDED SPECIAL! Today’s hottest Native American & Indigenous talent make their Marvel Comics debuts in a collection of super-charged stories as Marvel celebrates National Native American Heritage Month.

MARVEL CELEBRATES INDIGENOUS HISTORY IN A STAR-STUDDED SPECIAL! Today’s hottest Native American & Indigenous talent make their Marvel Comics debuts in a coll...

In November, Marvel will celebrate Native American history with a comic book (Marvel’s Voices: Indigenous Voices) writte...
11/05/2020
Marvel to pay tribute to Native American heritage in November

In November, Marvel will celebrate Native American history with a comic book (Marvel’s Voices: Indigenous Voices) written and illustrated by Indigenous creators. Bonus: In conjunction with the celebration, special variant covers that pay tribute to Native American heritage will appear on select Marvel titles in November. Check out the covers at https://www.marvel.com/articles/comics/marvel-honors-indigenous-history-with-native-american-tribute-covers-by-jeffrey-veregge

In addition to publishing a comic written and illustrated by Indigenous creators, Jeffrey Veregge is illustrating Native American-themed covers that will appear on select Marvel titles.

Attention Modoc Members: be on the lookout for an application which should be sent to you directly. Modoc Nation has som...
10/28/2020

Attention Modoc Members: be on the lookout for an application which should be sent to you directly. Modoc Nation has some remaining CARES ACT funding available and needs this information to gauge the impact the COVID-19 pandemic has made on our families. Any questions, please contact Annette at 918-994-1819.

In response to the disproportional occurrence of domestic violence among Native American populations, the CDC has publis...
10/27/2020

In response to the disproportional occurrence of domestic violence among Native American populations, the CDC has published this fact sheet as part of their efforts to understand and address Missing or Murdered Indigenous Peoples (MMIP) issues. Read the fact sheet here:https://www.niwrc.org/sites/default/files/documents/Resources/violence-against-native-peoples-fact-sheet.pdf
And to learn more about the CDC's tribal work visit:
https://www.cdc.gov/tribal/
October is domestic violence awareness month. To learn more and to access the domestic violence hotline go to: https://www.thehotline.org/

October is Domestic Violence Awareness month.  Free, confidential support services for Native American and Alaska Native...
10/20/2020

October is Domestic Violence Awareness month. Free, confidential support services for Native American and Alaska Native survivors of domestic violence and sexual violence are available daily from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. CST through the StrongHearts Native Helpline, a partnership with the National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center. Get help by calling 844.7NATIVE (762.8483)or by visiting https://www.thehotline.org/get-help/native-american-services/ for more information or to live chat.

If you see your name on this list, we need your updated information. Please contact Annette Clark at 918-994-1819 or ann...
10/15/2020

If you see your name on this list, we need your updated information. Please contact Annette Clark at 918-994-1819 or [email protected]
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>>>>
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Members without contact information:
Krystian Casada
Jason Blair
Kathy Clark
Cierra Laster

10/12/2020

On this Indigenous Peoples Day, we pause to recognize the sacrifices made by our ancestors and look towards a bright future for our people.

ATEC (All Tribes Educational Consortium) is selling copies of their cook book titled “Memories of the Grandmothers” to r...
10/08/2020

ATEC (All Tribes Educational Consortium) is selling copies of their cook book titled “Memories of the Grandmothers” to raise money for scholarships.
This cook book contains recipes of old and some newer favorites gathered from members of the nine tribes in the area and a bonus CD of stories told by Ardina More, DeMaris Gaines and Grace Goodeagle.
Cost: $10
We can ship-shipping costs will be added to the $10.
Please contact Annette Clark at 918-994-1819 or [email protected] if interested

ATEC consists of the Tribal Educational Directors, American Indian Educators, American Indian Retired Educators, Tribal Historians and Teachers of the Native American Languages.
ATEC Mission Statement: The coalition of Indian Nations in the All Tribes Education Consortium is for the purpose of nurturing and supporting educational endeavors of the youth and adults of Indian Tribes.
(Represented tribes are: Modoc Nation, Quapaw Tribe of Oklahoma, Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma , Cherokee Nation, Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma , Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma, Shawnee Tribe, Wyandotte Nation)

Update and details on adopting Devil's Garden Wild horses.
10/06/2020

Update and details on adopting Devil's Garden Wild horses.

Address

22 N. Eight Tribes Trail
Miami, OK
74354

General information

25 U.S.C. § 861a(a), Pub. L. 95–281, §3, May 15, 1978, 92 Stat. 247

Opening Hours

Monday 08:00 - 16:30
Tuesday 08:00 - 16:30
Wednesday 08:00 - 16:30
Thursday 08:00 - 16:30
Friday 08:00 - 16:30

Telephone

(918) 542-1190

Alerts

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Our Story

The Modoc Nation is a federally recognized Indian Tribe; organized under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936. The Modoc Tribe has a constitution and bylaws, approved by the United States Secretary of the Interior. The native Modoc homelands are in the Pacific Northwest, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra-Nevada Mountains along the present-day California and Oregon borders. As a result of the Modoc War in 1872-1873, the Modoc people who fought for their homelands were forcibly removed, as prisoners of war, to the Quapaw Agency located in the northeast region of Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. The Modoc Tribe is the only tribe to be exiled to Oklahoma from the western United States. The United States policies of Manifest Destiny and the transcontinental railroad, along with the discovery of gold in the mountains of California, better known as the California Gold Rush, led to the mass immigration of thousands settlers and prospectors into the Modoc lands. As a result of this mass intrusion, tensions arose between Modoc people and those who entered into their homelands. Stories, mostly of myth, were told among the intruding settlers and prospectors about the Modoc people being “ruthless” and “murderous” in killing innocent people who entered into their lands. These false stories were often used as statistics and political tools for encouraging violence and the removal of the Modoc people from their native homelands, including State policies being passed and financially supported to kill natives, including the Modoc people. From 1851-1852, a man by the name of Ben Wright who was a self-proclaimed “Indian killer” from Indiana, came out to Modoc country in search of gold. Wright decided that he had heard enough of these “murderous Modocs”. Wright gathered up a group of miners and negotiated a deal with the California government, and permitted under California state law, to be paid for every Modoc that his posse could kill. Wright and his posse set up camp near a Modoc village and rode in amongst the Modoc people there under a white flag of peace. Upon entering the village, Wright and his men opened fire on the unarmed Modoc people, shooting and killing all the men, women, and children that the posse could find. It was told that less than five Modoc people from this Modoc village survived the unjustified slaughtering that became known as the Ben Wright Massacre. The antagonistic settlers praised Ben Wright and called him a “hero” while the Modoc people mourned the loss of over 170 the innocent mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters, sons and daughters. Treaty of 1864 (October 1864) The region of the Lost River became a destination for settlers and non-Indian people who wanted to enter into the region and become landowners. The Modoc people who had lived and occupied this region for thousands of years had now become an obstacle for the U.S. government. The federal policy for most of the United States history was the concept of a “Treaty” between the U.S. government and a tribe, where the tribes would agree to give up their expansive claims to all of their aboriginal lands in exchange for a tract of land called a “reservation.” Tribes were assured that these reservations would remain as Indian lands “forever” and the United States would protect their boundaries from incursions by non-Indians. The United States government considered the Modoc lands to be a prime area for settlers and thus decided in 1864 to get the Modoc leaders to enter into a Treaty and place the Modoc people on a reservation, along with two other tribes, the Klamath and the Yahooskin band of Snake Indians. The reservation would be known as the Klamath Reservation. The government also promised in this treaty to provide supplies and money for goods, and build shops and mills for logging, along with schools for the Modoc children. During this time, the Civil War was still being waged between the Union and the Confederacy. As a result, the Treaty of 1864 was not ratified or honored by the United States when entered into, but the government still expected the Modoc people to honor their terms by giving up their lands and moving onto the Klamath Reservation. The Modoc people would honor the Treaty under the assumption that the United States would do the same, and the Modoc moved to the Klamath Reservation. Life on the reservation was difficult and short-lived for the Modoc people as they were constantly harassed and taunted by settlers, soldiers, and the Klamath. The promised food and supplies were often not brought to the Modoc, or if they were, they were later taken back or stolen by the Klamath. Within months, these disparaging events led a Modoc leader named Kientpoos, or Captain Jack as the United States came to know him, to call a meeting amongst his people. Together the Modoc people decided that they would leave the Klamath Reservation and go back to their homelands in the Lost River and Tule Lake region. Upon learning that Modoc people had returned to their homelands, the settlers who had entered into the lands began to complain to government agents and the military that they feared the Modoc people, and that the Modoc should be removed for their safety. The Modoc War (November 1872 – June 1873) The Treaty of 1864 was finally ratified by the United States in 1870. By this time, Captain Jack and his Modoc people had returned to their homelands and had been living there as they did before. The settlers continued to protest against them. Some of the Modoc people traveled back to the Klamath Reservation under new terms and on a new location. Captain Jack visited the location and found it unsuitable in comparison to his homelands. Captain Jack attempted to negotiate a new Treaty and reservation with government officials within his homeland region for the Modocs, but the government at the time decided that it would no longer enter into Treaties with Indian tribes. The Modoc people continuing to live in their homelands, in defiance of the Treaty of 1864, led the United States government to issue orders for their removal and placement back on the Klamath Reservation. However Captain Jack’s band of about 170 Modoc decided to remain on their homelands. By November of 1872, orders came from the Commissioner on Indian Affairs, F.A. Walker, in Washington, D.C. to remove Captain Jack’s band of Modocs “peacefully if possible, but forcible if you must.” With orders in hand, the U.S. Army rode to the Lost River region where Captain Jack and his people were living. The Army demanded that the Modoc people “give up their guns” and that they were under arrest for violating the Treaty. A Modoc man by the name of Scarfaced Charley refused to give up his gun. An Army lieutenant drew his gun on Scarefaced Charley, and demanded that he give up his gun, and then fired. The lieutenant missed, and Scarfaced Charley returned fire, as did many others on opposing sides. This was known as the Battle of Lost River that ignited the Modoc War. The Modoc people retreated to an ancient lava bed field, a natural fortress that extended over 46,000 acres. It was there at the lava beds that the Modoc people of Captain Jack’s band fought over 1,000 United States soldiers from November of 1872 until June of 1873; and the Modoc who were outnumbered nearly 20 to 1, won many of the battles fought. The Peace Commission of April 11, 1873 During the Modoc War¸ a party of government officials that included Army General E.R.S. Canby, Indian Agent Alfred Meachem, and a few others attempted to negotiate a truce between the military and the Modoc and return the Modoc to the Klamath Reservation. Again, Captain Jack requested his own reservation within his homeland region, and again he was denied the request. Hearing that the government would not agree to provide the Modoc people with the requested reservation within their homelands, Captain Jack and the other Modoc men in attendance at the negotiations opened fire on the government officials. Army General E.R.S. Canby was shot and killed; becoming the first and only United States Military General to be killed in an Indian war. End of the Modoc War After the killing of General Canby, General William Tecumseh Sherman who was the commanding General of the Army and a veteran of the Civil War, called for the “Extermination of the Modoc people.” Soldiers and volunteers came far and wide to defeat the Modocs. A military surge to defeat the Modocs pushed them out of their stronghold and the Army was able cutoff their water supply. It was only a matter of time before the Modoc people who fought for their homelands would surrender to the United States military, but he military would have to catch the Modoc first. The Modoc War and the Modoc people who fought in it became world famous, bringing newspaper reporters from as far away as Paris, France. The estimated cost of the United States in fighting the Modoc War was estimated to be at the lowest estimate a half-million dollars; in comparison to the reservation that Captain Jack had attempted to negotiate that would have only cost, at most, $10,000.00.

Nearby government services