Modoc Nation

Modoc Nation Federally Recognized Tribe originally from Northern California & Southern Oregon. Wright decided that he had heard enough of these “murderous Modocs”.

The Modoc Tribe is a federally recognized Indian Tribe; organized under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936. The Modoc Tribe has a constitution and bylaws, approved by the United States Secretary of the Interior. The native Modoc homelands are in the Pacific Northwest, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra-Nevada Mountains along the present-day California and Oregon borders. As a re

sult of the Modoc War in 1872-1873, the Modoc people who fought for their homelands were forcibly removed, as prisoners of war, to the Quapaw Agency located in the northeast region of Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. The Modoc Tribe is the only tribe to be exiled to Oklahoma from the western United States. The United States policies of Manifest Destiny and the transcontinental railroad, along with the discovery of gold in the mountains of California, better known as the California Gold Rush, led to the mass immigration of thousands settlers and prospectors into the Modoc lands. As a result of this mass intrusion, tensions arose between Modoc people and those who entered into their homelands. Stories, mostly of myth, were told among the intruding settlers and prospectors about the Modoc people being “ruthless” and “murderous” in killing innocent people who entered into their lands. These false stories were often used as statistics and political tools for encouraging violence and the removal of the Modoc people from their native homelands, including State policies being passed and financially supported to kill natives, including the Modoc people. In 1852 on a November day, a man by the name of Ben Wright who was a self-proclaimed “Indian killer” from Indiana, came out to Modoc country in search of gold. Wright gathered up a group of miners and negotiated a deal with the California government to be paid for every Modoc that his posse could kill. Wright and his posse set up camp near a Modoc village and rode in amongst the Modoc people there under a white flag of peace. Upon entering the village, Wright and his men opened fire on the unarmed Modoc people, shooting and killing all the men, women, and children that the posse could find. Less than five Modoc people from this Modoc village survived the unjustified slaughtering that became known as the Ben Wright Massacre. The settlers praised Ben Wright and called him a “hero” while the Modoc people mourned the loss of the innocent mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters, sons and daughters. Treaty of 1864 (October 1864)
The region of the Lost River became a destination for settlers and non-Indian people who wanted to enter into the region and become landowners. The Modoc people who had lived and occupied this region for thousands of years had now become an obstacle for the U.S. government. The federal policy for most of the United States history was the concept of a “Treaty” between the U.S. government and a tribe, where the tribes would agree to give up their expansive claims to all of their aboriginal lands in exchange for a tract of land called a “reservation.” Tribes were assured that these reservations would remain as Indian lands “forever” and the United States would protect their boundaries from incursions by non-Indians. The United States government considered the Modoc lands to be a prime area for settlers and thus decided in 1864 to get the Modoc leaders to enter into a Treaty and place the Modoc people on a reservation, along with two other tribes, the Klamath and the Yahooskin band of Snake Indians. The reservation would be known as the Klamath Reservation. The government also promised in this treaty to provide supplies and money for goods, and build shops and mills for logging, along with schools for the Modoc children. During this time, the Civil War was still being waged between the Union and the Confederacy. As a result, the Treaty of 1864 was not ratified or honored by the United States when entered into, but the government still expected the Modoc people to honor their terms by giving up their lands and moving onto the Klamath Reservation. The Modoc people would honor the Treaty under the assumption that the United States would do the same, and the Modoc moved to the Klamath Reservation. Life on the reservation was difficult and short-lived for the Modoc people as they were constantly harassed and taunted by settlers, soldiers, and the Klamath. The promised food and supplies were often not brought to the Modoc, or if they were, they were later taken back or stolen by the Klamath. Within months, these disparaging events led a Modoc leader named Kientpoos, or Captain Jack as the United States came to know him, to call a meeting amongst his people. Together the Modoc people decided that they would leave the Klamath Reservation and go back to their homelands in the Lost River and Tule Lake region. Upon learning that Modoc people had returned to their homelands, the settlers who had entered into the lands began to complain to government agents and the military that they feared the Modoc people, and that the Modoc should be removed for their safety. The Modoc War (November 1872 – June 1873)
The Treaty of 1864 was finally ratified by the United States in 1870. By this time, Captain Jack and his Modoc people had returned to their homelands and had been living there as they did before. The settlers continued to protest against them. Some of the Modoc people traveled back to the Klamath Reservation under new terms and on a new location. Captain Jack visited the location and found it unsuitable in comparison to his homelands. Captain Jack attempted to negotiate a new Treaty and reservation with government officials within his homeland region for the Modocs, but the government at the time decided that it would no longer enter into Treaties with Indian tribes. The Modoc people continuing to live in their homelands, in defiance of the Treaty of 1864, led the United States government to issue orders for their removal and placement back on the Klamath Reservation. However Captain Jack’s band of about 170 Modoc decided to remain on their homelands. By November of 1872, orders came from the Commissioner on Indian Affairs, F.A. Walker, in Washington, D.C. to remove Captain Jack’s band of Modocs “peacefully if possible, but forcible if you must.”

With orders in hand, the U.S. Army rode to the Lost River region where Captain Jack and his people were living. The Army demanded that the Modoc people “give up their guns” and that they were under arrest for violating the Treaty. A Modoc man by the name of Scarfaced Charley refused to give up his gun. An Army lieutenant drew his gun on Scarefaced Charley, and demanded that he give up his gun, and then fired. The lieutenant missed, and Scarfaced Charley returned fire, as did many others on opposing sides. This was known as the Battle of Lost River that ignited the Modoc War. The Modoc people retreated to an ancient lava bed field, a natural fortress that extended over 46,000 acres. It was there at the lava beds that the Modoc people of Captain Jack’s band fought over 1,000 United States soldiers from November of 1872 until June of 1873; and the Modoc who were outnumbered nearly 20 to 1, won many of the battles fought. The Peace Commission of April 11, 1873
During the Modoc War¸ a party of government officials that included Army General E.R.S. Canby, Indian Agent Alfred Meachem, and a few others attempted to negotiate a truce between the military and the Modoc and return the Modoc to the Klamath Reservation. Again, Captain Jack requested his own reservation within his homeland region, and again he was denied the request. Hearing that the government would not agree to provide the Modoc people with the requested reservation within their homelands, Captain Jack and the other Modoc men in attendance at the negotiations opened fire on the government officials. Army General E.R.S. Canby was shot and killed; becoming the first and only United States Military General to be killed in an Indian war. End of the Modoc War
After the killing of General Canby, General William Tecumseh Sherman who was the commanding General of the Army and a veteran of the Civil War, called for the “Extermination of the Modoc people.” Soldiers and volunteers came far and wide to defeat the Modocs. A military surge to defeat the Modocs pushed them out of their stronghold and the Army was able cutoff their water supply. It was only a matter of time before the Modoc people who fought for their homelands would surrender to the United States military, but he military would have to catch the Modoc first. The Modoc War and the Modoc people who fought in it became world famous, bringing newspaper reporters from as far away as Paris, France. The estimated cost of the United States in fighting the Modoc War was estimated to be at the lowest estimate a half-million dollars; in comparison to the reservation that Captain Jack had attempted to negotiate that would have only cost, at most, $10,000.00.

Operating as usual


Tribal sovereignty uplifts Oklahoma.

See you Monday!

See you Monday!


Calling all aspiring composers! In July, tweens and teens will create unique classical quartet scores infused with cultural influences. Join world-renowned composer Jerod Impichchaachaaha’ Tate (Chickasaw) for this five-day workshop from July 24-28 or July 31-Aug. 4, 9am-4pm. Limited to 6 students aged 11-15 who can read music and play at least one instrument. Required rehearsal and performance on Aug 5. Don't miss out! Learn more and apply at




[Image Description:

A quote by Meggan Roxanne that says, “my Ancestors endured too much for me to be indecisive about my power.”]


The Carvers continue to work on multiple saw cuts on the Mountain Carving. Here, you can see a Crew Member in the foreground operating a saw from the Horse’s Mane area. This is the first we have shared an image from this vantage point in which the tip of Crazy Horse’s Finger is so well defined and visible in the background! Progress is exciting!


Haskell Indian Nations University and the Kansas City Small Business Administration are honored to present the Sister Sk...

Haskell Indian Nations University and the Kansas City Small Business Administration are honored to present the Sister Sky Empowerment Workshop in beautiful Lawrence, Kansas. This workshop will be a 2-day, instructor-led business training program about entrepreneurship and small business management for Native entrepreneurs and business owners. RSVP today at the following link.

Title: Sister Sky Empower Workshop (Business Training)

Date: Tuesday, April 11th - Wednesday April 12th

Time: 8 AM CST – 5 PM CST (Both Days)

Place: 155 E Indian Ave, Lawrence, Kansas 66046 (Haskell Auditorium)

Register to reserve your spot today at:

Sister Sky in partnership with SBA works to meet the unique challenges faced by Native American entrepreneurs in Native communities and seeks to foster economic development through events like these, read more about Sister Sky here.

SBA Assistant Administrator for the Office of Native American Affairs, Jackson Brossy, will be in attendance as well as our Native leaders from APEX, the Small Business Development Center, the Haskell University Administration, plus special guests.

All are welcome. The community of focus is Native individuals, Tribes, and communities:

Native Students
Native Entrepreneurs
Tribal Economic Development Groups
Tribal Business Managers
Tribal Government Educators and Counselors
Native CDFIs
Native SBICs
Native Small Businesses
Native Large Businesses
Native Educators and Mentors

Eight learning modules will be provided:

Module 1: Orientation to Entrepreneurship

Module 2: Marketing Process

Module 3: Organizational Types

Module 4: Managing Cash Flow

Module 5: Financial Management

Module 6: Small Business Financing

Module 7: Pop-Up Economy

Module 8: Business Resource Capacity Building

There will be experts with information on how to access free entrepreneur and business support from anywhere in the country. All SBA programs are extended to the public on a non-discriminatory basis. Reasonable accommodations for persons with disabilities will be made if requested at least two weeks in advance.

We hope you can join us next month; it will be a valuable event and we hope to reach all those with an interest in owning or expanding a business.

Photos from Modoc Nation Behavioral Health's post

Photos from Modoc Nation Behavioral Health's post

The Modoc Nation Elected Council is excited and proud to offer a limited number of Travel Scholarships to attend: The Mo...

The Modoc Nation Elected Council is excited and proud to offer a limited number of Travel Scholarships to attend: The Modoc War 150th Remembrance Events hosted by the Lava Beds National Monument on 4/15/23 OR the Klamath Tribes Restoration Festivities held mid-August, 2023. For application and for more info, visit:

Photos from Native American Agriculture Fund's post

Photos from Native American Agriculture Fund's post



The Dr. Robert David presentation in Dorris, CA on March 7, 2023 at 6:30 pm will be live streamed via YouTube. We also plan to record the program in case there are any glitches.

You do not have to have an account with YouTube to see the program, but you may not be able interact and ask questions. When the program begins, the feed will go live through this link:


February is Teen Dating Violence Awareness month. Do you know someone that needs help now? Advocates are available 24/7 at 800-400-0883. Live chat is also available at


“Treat the earth well: it was not given to you by your parents, it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit the Earth from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children."
~Crazy Horse


On March 7 at 6:30 pm at the Butte Valley Community Center, 52900 Hwy. 97 in Dorris, CA, Klamath Tribal member and archaeologist Robert David will present his research on indigenous rock art in the Klamath Basin entitled “Spirit Songs and Sacred Fire.” The event is free.

For over a century, the petroglyphs at Lava Beds have been a mystery to park visitors and rock art researchers alike. Attempts to explain these petroglyphs have included a variety of perspectives but conspicuously excluded the voices of those who produced the petroglyphs – the Klamath and Modoc people themselves. “Lava Beds protects some of the most significant rock art in Northern California,” said Dave Curtis, Lava Bed NM archeologist. “Dr. David puts the Klamath and Modoc back into this important story.”

Dr. David proposes that, while the Klamath and Modoc might have largely forgotten about their rock art heritage, this information was in no way lost. Information preserved in their sacred narratives (i.e., myths), supplemented by early ethnographic and ethnohistoric accounts demonstrate that the tribes have retained a substantial amount of information about Petroglyph Point and their Klamath Basin rock art heritage.

Robert David, a member of the Klamath Tribes, is an Adjunct Professor at Portland State University, where he also earned an M.A. in Anthropology. He later earned his Ph.D. from University of California–Berkley. He has studied Klamath Basin rock art for more than 20 years and is currently working on projects concerning Petroglyph Point in Lava Beds National Monument.

LIVE STREAM: The event will be live streamed on YouTube. You do not have to be a member to see the event. Please go to the link here:

This program is part of an ongoing series of presentations related to the 150th anniversary of the Modoc War. The next event, “The Modoc War on Film,” will feature three films regarding the Modoc War, on March 25 at the Ross Ragland Theater in Klamath Falls, Oregon.

National Park photograph of a light brown cliff face with carved figures and symbols close to ground level.


"The honor of the people lies in the moccasin tracks of

the woman.

Walk the good road....

Be dutiful, respectful, gentle, and modest my daughter... Be strong with the warm, strong heart of the earth. No people goes down until their women are weak and

dishonored, or dead upon the ground. Be strong and sing the strength of the Great Powers within you, all around you."

Village Wise Man, SIOUX


🚨Get Your Application in by February 10th 🚨

1️⃣If you are a member or descendant of a Tribe or Indigenous community
2️⃣pursuing a degree in an ag-related field and
3️⃣are in need of financial assistance, professional development, and mentoring and support 🟰

Apply for our Tribal Agriculture Fellowship Program! Visit to start your application today! 💻

Thank you to our Founding Funders:
Native American Agriculture Fund
Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research
John Deere
Farmer Mac
Farm Credit

Incredible summer youth opportunities through the Intertribal Buffalo Council. To learn more attend a webinar 3/2/23 at ...

Incredible summer youth opportunities through the Intertribal Buffalo Council. To learn more attend a webinar 3/2/23 at 11am, 3pm, or 6pm:


NAAF CEO, Toni Stanger-McLaughlin, will be one of the keynote speakers for the inaugural State of Native Agriculture Address broadcasted on March 9, 2023 | 12 PM CT

The virtual event aims to showcase the diversity and the growing economic impact of Tribal agricultural systems throughout rural America.

To register for this broadcast please visit the link in our bio, or


We are seeking a Behavioral Health Professional to join our growing team! The ideal candidate would have a passion for working with individuals ages 0 to 8 years old with developmental disabilities (autism, down syndrome, cognitive delays, etc.). This provider will collaborate and work closely with the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) to develop and implement a comprehensive behavioral treatment plan to address the unique behavioral needs of the client. Apply here:


Perspectives on the Modoc War: Why It Still Matters.

The methods by which society remembers a 19th century war that claimed nearly 90 lives in the Upper Klamath Basin will be the topic addressed in a panel discussion scheduled for Saturday, Feb. 25, at the Klamath County Museum at 1:00 pm. The event is free.

Three historians will be asked how perceptions of the Modoc Indian War can be affected by various factors such as modern historical research practices, newly discovered facts, and shifting cultural sensitivities.

Numerous articles, books, and videos about the war have been produced, and one Hollywood movie released in 1954 was based largely on the war. Each new work has helped shape the public’s perception of the Modoc War, as well as larger issues for Native Americans.

“History itself cannot be changed, but our understanding of it is constantly being updated by new information and the benefit of hindsight,” said Jessica Reid, Cultural Resources Program Manager at Lava Beds National Monument. “This discussion among historians will be a timely opportunity for us to take stock of how our thinking about the war might be due for review.”

Mark Neupert, professor of humanities and social sciences at Oregon Institute of Technology, will moderate the panel discussion.

Cheewa James, a Modoc Nation tribal member and author of a book about the Modoc War, will serve as emcee for the event.

Three panelists have been invited to participate in the discussion:

Boyd Cothran, associate professor of U.S. History at York University in Toronto, Canada, and author of “Remembering the Modoc War: Redemptive Violence and the Making of American Innocence.”

Robert McNally, accomplished poet and author of “The Modoc War: A Story of Genocide at the Dawn of America’s Gilded Age.”

Travis Boyer, creator of “The Story Out West,” a YouTube channel dedicated to stories from America’s past.

To request an invite to watch the discussion via Zoom, send an email to [email protected].

The panel discussion is one in a series of events being offered this year to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Modoc War. Events are sponsored by the Klamath County Museum, Lava Beds Natural History Association and the Lava Beds National Monument.

The next event in the series will be “The Modoc War on Film,” featuring three videos that will be screened March 25 at the Ross Ragland Theater.

Photograph is a copy of a drawing of Captain Jack's cave that dates back to the war. It is a sepia illustration with seven Modoc men and women in a cave. The three men have weapons, and they are warming their hands on a fire, with three women and one child also by the fire.


✨ Starting TODAY! ✨

On Friday, our Homelands employees burned wood debris during continued cleanup work at Modoc Nation Ranches in Siskiyou ...

On Friday, our Homelands employees burned wood debris during continued cleanup work at Modoc Nation Ranches in Siskiyou County California. At the same time, US Fish and Wildlife conducted 1400 acres of prescribed burning activities on Lower Klamath Lake to reduce hazardous fuels resulting from the wildlife refuge receiving far too little water over the last few years. Fire was one of the main tools our ancestors used to manage this land since time immemorial. Healthy fire continues to be of immense value as modern science catches up with what we knew all along.


The Snow Bath is a Native tradition for infants among some tribes, believed to bring strength and good health. Today I had the opportunity to witness and record this little guy's first snow bath. His mother was kind enough to share this special moment with me, and I'm honored to get to share these with you. Yes, the sun was really shining while the snow came down around us. The last photo was post-bath. He was mesmerized by the falling snow.

Via Aspen at Mountain Roots Media, Durango


Happy Valentine's Day Everyone. We here at Modoc Market are proud to announce coming on April 15th and 29th, May 6th and 20th and June 3rd and 17th we will be holding a craft fair/farmer's market. Please mark your calendars and come out and see us!


22 N. Eight Tribes Trail
Miami, OK

Opening Hours

Monday 8am - 4:30pm
Tuesday 8am - 4:30pm
Wednesday 8am - 4:30pm
Thursday 8am - 4:30pm
Friday 8am - 4:30pm




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