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United States of America S.337 The FOIA Improvement Act of 2016

S. 337, The "FOIA Improvement Act of 2016," which amends the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) by: requiring Federal agencies to make certain records available for public inspection in an electronic format; and requiring the Office of Management and Budget, in consultation with the Attorney General, to ensure the operation of an online portal that would allow FOIA requests to be submitted to any Federal agency through a single website;



For decades, the U.S. exported jobs and imported products, while other countries surpassed us in critical sectors like infrastructure, clean energy, semiconductors, and biotechnology. Thanks to President Biden’s Investing in America Agenda – including historic legislation passed by Congress and ...



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Find your next travel adventure in the United States, and experience the land, culture, and people that make it unique.



The exact "promise of America" is something that each American defines for themselves. While our nation is richly diverse in countless ways, there is a common thread: an aspiration to create something greater for ourselves and each other. As a new nation was formed in 1776, it was grounded on ideals...



BUILDING COMMUNITIES The SEC protects investors in the $3.8 trillion municipal securities markets that cities and towns rely on to provide neighborhood schools, local libraries and hospitals, public parks, safe drinking water and so much more. We Inform and Protect Investors We Facilitate Capital Fo...



Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.



Beatriz “La Paloma del Norte” Llamas and Blanquita “Blanca Rosa” Rodríguez of Las Tesoros de San Antonio perform during the 2019 National Heritage Fellowships Concert in Washington, DC. Photo by Tom Pich



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You can’t escape its clutches — just in time for , the Pillars of Creation reach back out like a ghostly hand. (Some chilling perspective: these “fingers” are roughly 5 light-years long!)

The eerie landscape is captured this time by the James Webb Space Telescope’s mid-infrared instrument (MIRI). Mid-infrared light specializes in detailing where dust and gas is. Here, the densest areas of dust are the darkest shades of gray, while the red region toward the top is where the dust is diffuse and cooler.

Don’t worry, the baby stars seen in Webb’s near-infrared view (released earlier this month) didn’t disappear. They’re just not easy to detect in mid-infrared! Instead, MIRI sees young stars with dusty cloaks — the crimson orbs at the pillars’ fringes — as well as scattered, aging blue stars.

Hauntingly beautiful in any light, we can’t help but return to the Pillars of Creation over and over. And each time, we deepen our understanding of this region. With this new MIRI image, astronomers now have higher resolution data in mid-infrared light than ever before. Learn more: https://go.nasa.gov/3DEqFws




Please note: Although some of these records have been digitized and made available online, there are many records that are only available in paper or microfilm format at NARA locations. The access to and acquisition of land drove much of American history. From wars, treaties, immigration, and settle...


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https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/8%20Cleaners%20and%20Sanitizers%20FINAL%20RGK%20V2.pdfAllowed Allowed...


Allowed Detergents and Sanitizers for Food Contact Surfaces and Equipment in Organic Operations

The National Organic Program’s (NOP) Organic Standards require that an organic handling operation take
measures to prevent the commingling of organic and nonorganic products and protect organic products from
contact with prohibited substances. (USDA organic regulations 7 CFR 205.272).

Cleaning and sanitizing is an important part of an organic system plan. The purpose of this document is to provide
a brief overview of the typical cleaning/sanitizing process in an organic handling operation and what cleaners and
sanitizers may be used. This document answers common questions about cleaning food contact surfaces and



This is an overview only, providing general guidance for organic food handlers as it relates the use of allowed and
prohibited substances in the process of cleaning and sanitizing food contact surfaces and equipment in an organic
handling facility. The organic handler must be in compliance with all other food, health, and safety standards
(federal, state, local) as required by law.

The typical process for cleaning and sanitizing food contact surfaces and equipment is a liquid
process and follows this sequence of steps: clean, rinse, sanitize.
For purposes of this document, we are considering liquid cleaning processes, but note that effective cleaning does
not necessarily require liquid processes to comply with the organic standards or food safety standards. The organic standards simply require a process that prevents organic food from commingling with non-organic food and contamination from prohibited substances.

1. CLEAN: Cleaning agents, such as dish soap made from synthetic detergents, are used to remove dirt, germs, objects or impurities from food contact surfaces and equipment. The cleaning agent itself is not required to be organic. Any cleaner or detergent may be used provided that the cleaning agent is disclosed in the handler’s organic system plan and also meets the Food & Drug Administration’s (FDA) requirements. Unlike sanitizers (discussed below), cleaners and detergents are
designed to be rinsed off, and a subsequent rinse step is sufficient to prevent contamination of organic foods from synthetic cleaner residues.

2. RINSE: A rinse with potable water removes the cleaning agents. Potable water is simply water deemed safe for drinking and food preparation.

3. SANITIZE: Sanitizers are applied to cleaned surfaces to insure that the surface is free of pathogenic microbes. The sanitizing step is a mandated part of most state and federal food safety protocols for food contact surfaces. Sanitizers merit more
scrutiny than cleaners in an organic process because some sanitizers are designed to leave a faint anti-bacterial residue on food contact surfaces. Such residues are usually not allowed in contact with organic food. Therefore, procedures in an organic operation must insure that organic foods do not contact any prohibited
sanitizer residues. Because of the need to insure a safe food system, the USDA
organic regulations allow the use of some synthetic sanitizers for food contact
surfaces, discussed below.
Do I have to use only organic detergents, cleaners, and soaps in my facility?
No. Organic food handlers are not restricted to using only organic detergents, cleaners and
soaps in their facilities. The criteria for whether these items can be used in an organic facility
are not based on whether they are organic. The requirement is simply to prevent contact with
organic food. Therefore, the only restriction on cleaning agents is that they must be rinsed
from the food contact surface prior to use.
What cleaners are specifically allowed by the USDA organic regulations?
There are no cleaners that are listed in the USDA organic regulations because the guidelines
require you to completely remove any cleaner from food contact surfaces and equipment. If
you are properly removing the cleaner, no residue should be in contact with organic foods.
What sanitizers may I use on the organic production line?
7 CFR 205.605
The following active ingredients are allowed in sanitizers used on organic food contact surfaces
and equipment, with a noted restriction on chlorine sanitizers:

• Chlorine Materials (see notes below)
• Hydrogen peroxide
• Ozone
• Peracetic acid/peroxyacetic acid
• Phosphoric acid
• Potassium hydroxide
• Sodium hydroxide

A Note About Chlorine Materials
Chlorine is listed on the National List of Approved and Prohibited Substances as an allowed
sanitizing substance (7 CFR 205.605). Sodium hypochlorite is the active ingredient in what’s commonly known as bleach or chlorine bleach. Chlorine-based sanitizing solutions
are effective and allowed sanitizers under the organic standards, provided that the manufacturer’s instructions are followed, particularly with regard to sanitizer concentration. The National Organic Program’s July 22, 2011 Guidance Document 5026
clarified that under such circumstances, there is no requirement to follow a chlorine sanitizer with a water rinse. Such a rinse would undermine the sanitizer’s role in insuring
food safety. Are there any other sanitizers allowed to clean food contact surfaces and equipment?

Other active sanitizing agents may be used in organic handling operations, provided measures 3 are taken to prevent the sanitizers from coming into contact with organic food products.
Because the active removal of sanitizers from food contact equipment can raise food safety issues, the use of sanitizers other than those allowed by the National List of Approved and
Prohibited Substances should be considered only as a last resort and only in compliance with food safety regulations. Organic certifying agents will require operations to show that no
prohibited sanitizer residues remain on the food contact surfaces prior to food processing. All of the sanitizers listed below require an intervening step to ensure the sanitizer never
comes into contact with the organic food product. These sanitizers include:

• Acetic acid
• Ethyl alcohol
• Isopropyl alcohol
• Citric products/limonene
• Potassium permanganate
• Sulfuric acid
• Vinegar
• Quaternary ammonia

A note about Quaternary Ammonia
Special measures must be taken when utilizing quaternary ammonia-based sanitizers.
This sanitizing substance is designed to leave persistent anti-microbial residues on food
contact equipment. Each certifying agent has different procedures for verifying that
quaternary ammonia residues do not contact organic food.
Is a list of cleaners and sanitizers required as part of my organic system plan?
Yes, all cleaning agents, detergents, and sanitizers must be disclosed in the organic system plan
for a handling operation. In many cases, the certifying agent for a handling operation may
require that labels or Material Safety Data Sheets for cleaners and sanitizers be submitted as
part of the organic system plan.
As part of its review of an operation’s organic system plan, the certifying agent considers
whether the sanitation procedures described would protect the finished product’s organic
integrity. The certifying agent needs to see that cleaning agents and prohibited sanitizers would
not contaminate organic products. At inspection, the organic inspector verifies that the
cleaning and sanitation plan described in the organic system plan is being implemented.
For specific questions about the record keeping expectations, or your organic system plan,
contact your certifying agent.
For Further Reading & Questions
The full text of the USDA organic regulations can be found online at the U.S. Government
Publishing Office (GPO) website in the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).
Specifically, these regulatory sections may be helpful to those with questions about the use of
detergents and sanitizers:
7 CFR 205.272 Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention
practice standard.
7 CFR 205.605 Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in
or on processed products labeled as “organic” or “made with
organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”
For guidance in the use of chlorine materials in organic food production and handling, visit NOP
5026 Guidance.

For general information about the National Organic Program, visit www.ams.usda.gov/nop

Further questions may be directed to your certifying agency.
This product was developed with support from U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Marketing

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In February of 1839, Portuguese slave hunters abducted a large group of Africans from Sierra Leone and shipped them to Havana, Cuba, a center for the slave trade. This abduction violated all of the treaties then in existence. Two Spanish plantation owners, Pedro Montes and Jose Ruiz, purchased 53 Af...


Angela Yvonne Davis is a prominent political activist, scholar, and author. She emerged as the leader of Communist Party USA in the 1960s and had close ties to the Black Panther Party. She has advocated for the abolishment of prisons and the prison-industrial complex. She is currently Distinguished....



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