U.S. Army Center of Military History

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1 MAY 1970 - CAMBODIAN INCURSION - #VietnamWar#Armyhistory #USArmy On 1 May 1970 a combined U.S. and Army of the Republi...
05/01/2021

1 MAY 1970 - CAMBODIAN INCURSION - #VietnamWar
#Armyhistory #USArmy

On 1 May 1970 a combined U.S. and Army of the Republic of (South) Vietnam (ARVN) force initiated Operation TOAN THANG 43 in the "Fishhook" area of Cambodia adjacent to South Vietnam's Tay Ninh Province, some 65 miles northwest of Saigon.

Officially called the "Sanctuary Offensive," the operation lasted from 1 May to 30 June 1970. The incursion into Cambodia, codenamed Operation ROCK CRUSHER by U.S. forces, included the U.S. 11th and the ARVN 1st Armored Cavalry Regiments, the 3d Brigade of the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) and the ARVN 3d Airborne Brigade, plus one armor and one mechanized infantry battalion from the U.S. 25th Infantry Division and the 3d Brigade of the U.S. 9th Infantry Division, respectively - under the operational control of the 3d Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Division.

The Allied units entered Cambodia from three directions aimed at attacking the Central Office for South Vietnam (COSVN), the enemy command headquarters for operations in the southern Republic of Vietnam (RVN), or South Vietnam, and control center for enemy operations against the III Corps Tactical Zone (CTZ).

As American withdrawal from South Vietnam proceeded, increasing concern arose over the enemy's strength in the sanctuaries inside nominally neutral Cambodia. With the emergence of an anti-Communist government under Lon Nol, U.S. President Richard Nixon relaxed the restrictions on moving against enemy bases inside Cambodia. When North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces advanced on the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh. Lon Nol appealed for help. American and allied South Vietnamese forces began large-scale offensives in Cambodia on 1 May.

ALSO SEE
https://history.army.mil/html/books/030/30-22/index.html
https://history.army.mil/.../vietnam/part01/ch01/index.html
https://history.army.mil/html/books/090/90-17-1/index.html

ARMY ART FRIDAY - HIGHLIGHTING ARMY SUPPORT TO SOCIETY#Armyhistory #ArmyArt #USArmyThe U.S. Army quickly responds to hum...
04/30/2021

ARMY ART FRIDAY - HIGHLIGHTING ARMY SUPPORT TO SOCIETY
#Armyhistory #ArmyArt #USArmy

The U.S. Army quickly responds to humanitarian challenges at home and around the world.

"Soldier Talking to Haitian Youth"
by Army Artist Gene Snyder

ARMY ART FRIDAY - HIGHLIGHTING ARMY SUPPORT TO SOCIETY
#Armyhistory #ArmyArt #USArmy

The U.S. Army quickly responds to humanitarian challenges at home and around the world.

"Soldier Talking to Haitian Youth"
by Army Artist Gene Snyder

ARMY ART FRIDAY - HIGHLIGHTING ARMY SUPPORT TO SOCIETYThe U.S. Army quickly responds to humanitarian challenges at home ...
04/30/2021

ARMY ART FRIDAY - HIGHLIGHTING ARMY SUPPORT TO SOCIETY

The U.S. Army quickly responds to humanitarian challenges at home and around the world.

"Food Line - Hurricane Andrew"
by Army Artist Gene Snyder

ARMY ART FRIDAY - HIGHLIGHTING ARMY SUPPORT TO SOCIETY

The U.S. Army quickly responds to humanitarian challenges at home and around the world.

"Food Line - Hurricane Andrew"
by Army Artist Gene Snyder

NEW ARMY HISTORY MAGAZINE SPRING 2021 EDITION NOW AVAILABLE!#Armyhistory #USArmy In this Spring 2021 issue of Army Histo...
04/29/2021

NEW ARMY HISTORY MAGAZINE SPRING 2021 EDITION NOW AVAILABLE!
#Armyhistory #USArmy

In this Spring 2021 issue of Army History, we present two excellent articles, a crop of engaging book reviews, a riveting Artifact Spotlight, and a new addition to the journal, the Army Museum Feature, which will highlight various Army field museums from around the world.

The first article, by eminent historian George Herring, examines Operation Lam Son 719, the South Vietnamese–led invasion of Laos in 1971. The operation, widely considered a failure, was intended to destroy North Vietnam’s ability to launch offensives in the south, provide the Unites States more bargaining chips at the peace talks in Paris, and give the Vietnamization program more time to be implemented. Herring details not only the ground invasion and the air and logistical support provided by the United States, but the failures in South Vietnamese and U.S leadership, the increase in antiwar demonstrations, and the political fallout for the Nixon administration. He argues that the botched invasion was decisive in determining the eventual outcome of the war.

The second article, by Center of Military History (CMH) cartographer Matthew Boan, looks at the evolution of Army mapmaking. From the early days of the hand-drawn maps of the American Revolution to the use of satellites, GPS, and computer software, Boan chronicles the development of Army maps and the technology used to make them.

GET THE ONLINE VERSION HERE:
https://history.army.mil/armyhistory/index.html

NEW ARMY HISTORY MAGAZINE SPRING 2021 EDITION NOW AVAILABLE!
#Armyhistory #USArmy

In this Spring 2021 issue of Army History, we present two excellent articles, a crop of engaging book reviews, a riveting Artifact Spotlight, and a new addition to the journal, the Army Museum Feature, which will highlight various Army field museums from around the world.

The first article, by eminent historian George Herring, examines Operation Lam Son 719, the South Vietnamese–led invasion of Laos in 1971. The operation, widely considered a failure, was intended to destroy North Vietnam’s ability to launch offensives in the south, provide the Unites States more bargaining chips at the peace talks in Paris, and give the Vietnamization program more time to be implemented. Herring details not only the ground invasion and the air and logistical support provided by the United States, but the failures in South Vietnamese and U.S leadership, the increase in antiwar demonstrations, and the political fallout for the Nixon administration. He argues that the botched invasion was decisive in determining the eventual outcome of the war.

The second article, by Center of Military History (CMH) cartographer Matthew Boan, looks at the evolution of Army mapmaking. From the early days of the hand-drawn maps of the American Revolution to the use of satellites, GPS, and computer software, Boan chronicles the development of Army maps and the technology used to make them.

GET THE ONLINE VERSION HERE:
https://history.army.mil/armyhistory/index.html

04/29/2021
This is My Squad CMH Cheryl Bratten.mp4

THIS IS MY SQUAD - CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY

Cheryl Bratten, Chief of the CMH Historical Products Division, talks about the great work and professionalism of her Squad.

#Armyhistory #USArmy @USArmyTRADOC #ThisIsMySquad

THROWBACK THURSDAY -  T-10 TROOP PERSONNEL PARACHUTE #Armyhistory #USArmyThe Type - 10 (T-10) series Troop Personnel Par...
04/29/2021

THROWBACK THURSDAY - T-10 TROOP PERSONNEL PARACHUTE
#Armyhistory #USArmy

The Type - 10 (T-10) series Troop Personnel Parachute system was the standard individual soldier's equipment for conducting mass static-line parachute combat drops in airborne operations in the U.S. armed forces for decades.

First introduced in the 1950s, the basic model was modified to include several improvements to enhance safety and reliability. The T-10B, introduced in 1970, included an anti-inversion net on the skirt of the canopy, and the T-10C, fielded in 1986, had a longer pocket band, which increased its length from 4 to 7½ inches, to reduce the opening shock when the canopy inflated.

The T-10D, which was adopted in 2000, included the detachable pack tray and 15-foot universal static line and 5-foot extension static line for jumping from either the C-130 Hercules four-engine turboprop or the high performance C-17 Globemaster aircraft. In 2006, the T-11 system began to replace the venerable T-10 that was so familiar to generations of U.S. Army paratroopers.

What are your memories of the T-10?

28 April 1965 --- US INVASION OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (OPN POWER PACK) - Cold War#Armyhistory #USArmyWhen civil war er...
04/28/2021

28 April 1965 --- US INVASION OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (OPN POWER PACK) - Cold War
#Armyhistory #USArmy

When civil war erupted in the Dominican Republic, U.S. Ambassador W. Tapley Bennett, Jr., notified his State Department superiors in Washington of the potential danger, and recommended that President Lyndon B. Johnson consider a military response to prevent the country from becoming - what he termed - "another Cuba."

Planning fell to Lieutenant General Bruce Palmer, commander of the U.S. Army's XVIII Airborne Corps, and Major General Robert York, commander of the 82d Airborne Division. Operation POWER PACK began as a joint operation on 28 April when the 3d Battalion of the 6th Marines landed on the western edge of Santo Domingo by helicopter and evacuated American citizens to the USS BOXER offshore.

Two days later, the 3d Brigade of the 82d Airborne Division air-landed at San Isidro airfield east of the capital. Paratroopers of the 1st Battalion, 508th Infantry advanced westward, with close air support from Marine F-4 Phantom jet fighters, to secure the Duarte Bridge that connected the eastern and western sections of the city. At the end of the first week, one battalion of marines and two battalions of paratroopers were conducting security operations.

By the end of May, after the rest of the airborne division had landed, Palmer directed his subordinate commanders to initiate stability operations. American troops were soon providing constabulary and humanitarian support, such as distributing relief supplies like food and water, and providing medical aid to both factions of the internal struggle. Fighting continued until September when a provisional government led by Héctor García-Godoy was established under the sponsorship of the Organization of American States (OAS), and preparations for free elections to reestablish a legitimate government began.

As U.S. personnel withdrew, an inter-American task force led by Brazil assumed military support. Elections in 1966 brought Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo to the presidency.

ALSO SEE

http://www.history.army.mil/html/bookshelves/resmat/dom_republic/Power_Pack-US_Intervention_Dominican_Republic_1965-1966.pdf

http://www.history.army.mil/html/bookshelves/resmat/dom_republic/index.html

27 APRIL 1943 - HEROIC BATTLE OF HILL 609 IN TUNISIA BEGINS - #WWII#Armyhistory #USArmy #MOHOn 23 April 1943, under comm...
04/27/2021

27 APRIL 1943 - HEROIC BATTLE OF HILL 609 IN TUNISIA BEGINS - #WWII
#Armyhistory #USArmy #MOH

On 23 April 1943, under command of Major General Omar N. Bradley, the U.S. II Corps advanced as part of the of 18th Army Group. The 9th Infantry Division along the coast and the 1st Infantry Division to the south encountered strong enemy defenses that slowed progress despite American artillery superiority. Some units, like 2d Battalion, 18th Infantry, of the 1st Division, had to retake the same hill three times.

Extraordinary personal courage enabled the Americans to maintain the advance. Sergeant William L. Nelson of the 9th Division provided one example when he directed effective mortar fire that stopped a German counterattack, but brought a rain of enemy grenades on his exposed position. Though mortally wounded, he crawled to another position and continued to direct fire on the enemy. Nelson was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Such determination convinced enemy units to withdraw on 25 April.

The 34th Infantry Division entered the line between the 1st and 9th Divisions and mounted a determined assault the night of 26-27 April on a cluster of ridges topped by Hill 609 while the 1st Infantry Division to the south attacked Hill 523 at the same time. Both divisions were supported by battalions of the 1st Armored Division and by the 27th, 68th, and 91st Field Artillery Battalions.

The Americans suffered heavy casualties in the desperate fighting, but steadily gained ground, albeit measured by inches and yards. Again, progress often came with demonstrations of personal courage. On the 28th the 6th Armored Infantry Regiment was pinned down by German machine guns when Private Nicholas Minue crawled through the enemy line and - using only a bayonet - cleared several machinegun positions before he was killed. For his heroism Minue was also posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

ALSO SEE

https://history.army.mil/html/books/072/72-12/index.html

https://history.army.mil/html/books/100/100-6/index.html

27 APRIL 1865 - SULTANA DISASTER - #CivilWar#Armyhistory #USArmyAround 0200 on 27 April 1865, as the Civil War was drawi...
04/27/2021

27 APRIL 1865 - SULTANA DISASTER - #CivilWar
#Armyhistory #USArmy

Around 0200 on 27 April 1865, as the Civil War was drawing to a close, a massive explosion rocked the steamship SULTANA on the Mississippi River just north of Memphis, Tennessee. The 260-foot-long paddlewheel steamboat was carrying over 2,000 former U.S. Army prisoners of war on their homeward journey.

The ship’s captain, J. Cass Mason, had packed the vessel to six times its rated 375-passenger capacity to maximize profits. While SULTANA was docked at Vicksburg, Mississippi, Mason ordered that a leaky boiler be hastily patched rather than undergo more extensive repairs that would cost him precious time and money.

But the strain of carrying so many passengers against a swift river current caused by the spring thaw proved too much for the newly- and hastily-patched boiler. It burst, and the resulting explosion blasted the middle of the ship open and started a raging fire that rapidly spread from stem to stern. Many who were not killed instantly by the explosion either drowned in the frigid waters of the Mississippi or died from severe burns.

Roughly 1,800 survivors of Andersonville and other disease- and starvation-ridden Confederate prison of war camps perished, making the SULTANA incident the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history.

ALSO SEE

https://history.army.mil/html/books/075/75-17/index.html

27 APRIL 1865 - SULTANA DISASTER - #CivilWar
#Armyhistory #USArmy

Around 0200 on 27 April 1865, as the Civil War was drawing to a close, a massive explosion rocked the steamship SULTANA on the Mississippi River just north of Memphis, Tennessee. The 260-foot-long paddlewheel steamboat was carrying over 2,000 former U.S. Army prisoners of war on their homeward journey.

The ship’s captain, J. Cass Mason, had packed the vessel to six times its rated 375-passenger capacity to maximize profits. While SULTANA was docked at Vicksburg, Mississippi, Mason ordered that a leaky boiler be hastily patched rather than undergo more extensive repairs that would cost him precious time and money.

But the strain of carrying so many passengers against a swift river current caused by the spring thaw proved too much for the newly- and hastily-patched boiler. It burst, and the resulting explosion blasted the middle of the ship open and started a raging fire that rapidly spread from stem to stern. Many who were not killed instantly by the explosion either drowned in the frigid waters of the Mississippi or died from severe burns.

Roughly 1,800 survivors of Andersonville and other disease- and starvation-ridden Confederate prison of war camps perished, making the SULTANA incident the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history.

ALSO SEE

https://history.army.mil/html/books/075/75-17/index.html

NEW ARMY HISTORY MAGAZINE SPRING 2021 EDITION NOW AVAILABLE!#Armyhistory #USArmy In this Spring 2021 issue of Army Histo...
04/26/2021

NEW ARMY HISTORY MAGAZINE SPRING 2021 EDITION NOW AVAILABLE!
#Armyhistory #USArmy

In this Spring 2021 issue of Army History, we present two excellent articles, a crop of engaging book reviews, a riveting Artifact Spotlight, and a new addition to the journal, the Army Museum Feature, which will highlight various Army field museums from around the world.

The first article, by eminent historian George Herring, examines Operation Lam Son 719, the South Vietnamese–led invasion of Laos in 1971. The operation, widely considered a failure, was intended to destroy North Vietnam’s ability to launch offensives in the south, provide the Unites States more bargaining chips at the peace talks in Paris, and give the Vietnamization program more time to be implemented. Herring details not only the ground invasion and the air and logistical support provided by the United States, but the failures in South Vietnamese and U.S leadership, the increase in antiwar demonstrations, and the political fallout for the Nixon administration. He argues that the botched invasion was decisive in determining the eventual outcome of the war.

The second article, by Center of Military History (CMH) cartographer Matthew Boan, looks at the evolution of Army mapmaking. From the early days of the hand-drawn maps of the American Revolution to the use of satellites, GPS, and computer software, Boan chronicles the development of Army maps and the technology used to make them.

GET THE ONLINE VERSION HERE:
https://history.army.mil/armyhistory/index.html

NEW ARMY HISTORY MAGAZINE SPRING 2021 EDITION NOW AVAILABLE!
#Armyhistory #USArmy

In this Spring 2021 issue of Army History, we present two excellent articles, a crop of engaging book reviews, a riveting Artifact Spotlight, and a new addition to the journal, the Army Museum Feature, which will highlight various Army field museums from around the world.

The first article, by eminent historian George Herring, examines Operation Lam Son 719, the South Vietnamese–led invasion of Laos in 1971. The operation, widely considered a failure, was intended to destroy North Vietnam’s ability to launch offensives in the south, provide the Unites States more bargaining chips at the peace talks in Paris, and give the Vietnamization program more time to be implemented. Herring details not only the ground invasion and the air and logistical support provided by the United States, but the failures in South Vietnamese and U.S leadership, the increase in antiwar demonstrations, and the political fallout for the Nixon administration. He argues that the botched invasion was decisive in determining the eventual outcome of the war.

The second article, by Center of Military History (CMH) cartographer Matthew Boan, looks at the evolution of Army mapmaking. From the early days of the hand-drawn maps of the American Revolution to the use of satellites, GPS, and computer software, Boan chronicles the development of Army maps and the technology used to make them.

GET THE ONLINE VERSION HERE:
https://history.army.mil/armyhistory/index.html

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Please send any inquiries directly to CMH at [email protected] The U.S. Army Center of Military History has three divisions—History, Field Programs, and Museums. All have a presence at Fort Lesley J. McNair in Washington, D.C. The Museum Division also operates two storage and support facilities, Museum Support Center — Belvoir at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and Museum Support Center — Anniston at Anniston Army Dept. Alabama. The Army’s core art and historical collection is stored at Fort Belvoir. The future National Museum of the U.S. Army also will be located at Fort Belvoir. The U.S. Army and Heritage Center at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, operates a rotating exhibits gallery and houses archives and photographs in its Military History Institute. Other Army documents are housed at the National Archives. The Army Historical Foundation is a 501(c)(3) private not-for-profit educational organization, founded in 1983, located in Arlington, Virginia. Among other activities, it is conducting fundraising for the proposed National Museum of the U.S. Army.

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